Other styles suggested the letter forms of roman and italic type. Roman type was used by several printers before Nicolas Jenson so improved it as to ensure its triumph as the standard type. Italic type was first used by Aldus Manutius, who also introduced small capitals. Roman type is of two basic sorts, old style and modern. The modern type emphasizes the contrast between light and heavy lines and has conspicuous level serifs; the old style type keeps its lines of nearly the same weight and has inconspicuous serifs, some of them sloping. Qualities of old style and modern types are often combined. Into the mid-20th cent. type characters were usually made by pouring metal into previously cut matrices and, less frequently, by processes using plastics and other synthetic materials. Computerization of type design and photomechanical printing techniques have almost entirely replaced metal type. By the early years of the 21st cent. the computer had made the design of new styles of type, once an arduous task, a relatively simple process. Tens of thousands of type fonts are now in existence, and new styles of type are created on a nearly daily basis.
Famous designers of types include, in addition to those named above, Geofroy Tory, Claude Garamond, Robert Granjon, Christopher van Dyck, William Caslon, John Baskerville, Giambattista Bodoni, François Ambroise Didot, William Morris, Bruce Rogers, F. W. Goudy, and the contemporary American Matthew Carter.
See also typography.
See F. W. Goudy, Alphabet and Elements of Lettering (repr. 1922); H. Lehmann-Haupt, One Hundred Books about Bookmaking (1949); J. R. Biggs, An Approach to Type (2d ed. 1962); S. Carter, Twentieth-century Type Designers (1987); A. S. Lawson with D. Agner, Printing Types (rev. and expanded ed. 1990); W. P. Jaspert et al., Encyclopaedia of Type Faces (5th ed. 2001); D. B. Updike, Printing Types (4th ed. 2001); P. Baines and A. Haslam, Type and Typography (2002); M. Bierut, Seventy-nine Essays on Design (2007). See also bibliography under typography.
The original R-Type was well-received by most gaming critics. However, it was also infamous for its relentless difficulty. It earned 7th place in IGN's Top 10 most difficult games to beat. The gameplay of R-Type is noticeably distinct among shoot 'em ups. Invariably the player will lose, not because of an inequality in firepower, but because of the design of the levels themselves. There is usually a 'correct' way to get through a level, but players must learn these by experience - ie. by losing and restarting from earlier in the level.
The Humans of the 26th century abandoned a horrible weapon in space.
That mistake has come back to haunt us in the form of the Bydo Empire.
The Bydo is the living embodiment of evil.
A living weapon built with the self-replicating properties of DNA, the Bydo has physical mass, yet exhibits the properties of a wave. It diffuses easily, and fills any environment it encounters.
The Bydo can even interfere with, and ultimately consume, human thought itself.
The Bydo were created by mankind in the 26th century to be used as weapons of ecological destruction against our enemies within the galaxy. Unlike conventional weapons of defense, the Bydo were conceived as limited range weapons with the purpose of destroying every ecological form in their path.
The Bydo were placed inside a container almost as large as the moon where they consumed everything and continued to evolve. A combination of physics, genetic engineering, and black magic resulted in man-made creatures of evil.
Mankind intended to send the Bydo through a wormhole to the enemy solar system to annihilate their planet. Everything appeared to be going as planned. However, there was a slight error and the Bydo became active in our own solar system. For 150 hours they raged until they were carried away to another dimension by a special weapon. It appeared that mankind in the 26th century was safe.
However, the Bydo were still alive and continued to evolve in another dimension. After wandering for what seemed like an eternity, they reappeared in the 22nd century to demonstrate their power against Earth.
The Bydo backstory developed from being negligible into being a complex fictional example of retrocausality, where humankind disposed of an experimental weapon into an alternate dimension and that weapon frees itself into mankind's own past.
Within the heart of the Bydo Empire, a cloning plant was discovered. It lies in a steam cleaned area inside of a gigantic computer which controls the planet itself.
Not only did they multiply as life forms, but achieved mass production of mobile weapons systems. These instincts of destruction and the feelings of terror which they caused, prompted mankind to call them the Bydo Empire.
The Force is a piece of Bydo flesh. It has characteristics of both a life form and a mineral. By absorbing a certain type of energy, it undergoes a three stage transformation. When struck by a beam, a catalytic function causes the beam to change its form. Against the Bydo, the purest form of energy was extracted from this piece, and converged into a ball-like shape and manipulated through a control rod. The name "Force" implies both a physical and mental power. Four rods are needed to control the Force. Each one organically combines with the energy inside.
To obtain the Force, the player must collect a weapon power-up. When this is done, the Force arrives onscreen from behind. To attach the Force to the ship, the player simply flies into it. When the Force is attached, either to the front or back, it acts as a weapons system and will fire in whatever direction it is facing.
The Force has three levels of power. It is at its least powerful when it first appears, but increases in power whenever the player collects a new weapon power-up. The Force's visual appearance is different for each power level, and becomes more sophisticated as this increases:
The player has a single button with which to control the Force. By pressing the button when the Force is attached to the ship, it is rocket-ejected away in whatever direction it is facing. When detached, the Force can be made to fire, but it uses an array of simple blasters rather than the weapons it supplies to the ship. By pressing the button again, the Force can be called back to the ship. Because it homes in on the player's ship, the player can control it in a limited manner by moving the ship as it is returning.
The Force also, importantly, acts as a shield. It is indestructible and can block normal enemy weapons. It can also damage or destroy enemies by collision.
It is almost customary to have at least one instance, usually during the final boss battle, where the Force can be ejected and launched into a boss' weak point, lodged there, and constantly damage it until the boss falls. The original R-Type has the most examples of this, boasting four:
Further installments of the series see upgrades to the nature of the Wave Cannon's full discharge and give an added element to the gameplay. For example, in R-Type II, if the cannon is not fired when the 'BEAM' bar has been charged completely, the gauge is able to enter a second stage of charging, and if the cannon is fired during this time, it launches a wide spread shot of medium power energy shots instead of a single large shot.
In the history of the R-Type saga, Bits are the product of incomplete research that was intended to independently mimic the bioenergy technology of the Bydo, namely, the Force Device itself; only with human life force. The project was extremely controversial and was not completed in time for the R-9's initial launch, and thus the units were limited to defensive roles and minimal offensive capacity. The Bit Cores resemble smaller versions of the Force Core for this reason.
An R-Type port was produced as an unlicensed NES/Famicom cartridge by "Magic Series Corp" under the name "Magic Dragon". The level design and music are the same as the original game, but the graphics have been largely redone from scratch (for example, the R-9 more closely resembles a fighter jet, and the first enemies encountered have been changed to birds.)
On the C64 and Amiga, a clone called Katakis was produced by Factor 5. It was considered by many C64 players to be technically better due to the C64 port of R-Type being rushed. Due to legal challenges from Activision, the clone was later re-made and renamed Denaris.
It was one of the first games confirmed for Nintendo's Virtual Console. The Turbografx 16 version is currently available and the US and European versions include all eight levels, unlike the original release which was split across two game cards (HuCards) and thus cost more. The Japanese release is still split and requires two downloads. The Japanese PC Engine version of R-Type may very well hold the distinction of being the only game for any cartridge-based system which was split across more than one cartridge.
At the end of the second level of Turrican II, you can see the Force in the hangar where you go on a ship. The whole third level is made on a ship similar to R-Type.
The third boss of the game Radiant Silvergun, was designed as an homage to the Arrowhead: it has an indestructible force, two bits, a wave cannon, and all three laser types (counter air, rebound, counter ground).
2000 saw them selling "traditional Japanese sweets" containing "Force". When asked in the phony order form on which one was your favorite, the three choices were "R9 (Standard Force)", "RX (Tentacle Force)", and "R13 (Anchor Force)". All three were the ship designation and Force names in R-Type Delta.
In 2003, they put up a website that was selling various versions of the R-9 fighter much in the same manner as a car. You could choose from three types: the standard model, the sport model, and the convertible model.
Irem set up "Irem Burger" as their 2004 prank. R-Type played a supporting role here, with three "Bydo Burgers": The Living Body Burger, the Machine Burger, and the Harmony Burger. As well, some of the other "burgers" were filled with game discs, the one for R-Type Final proudly on display right below the top bun.
2005 saw Irem debuting a phony console, the "EXIDNA". One of the "games" available at launch: R-Type Final 2. As if that weren't enough, they also had a triple-wide "Bydo Monitor" as a peripheral, that of course R-Type Final 2 would support.