(born 1555, Huating, Kiangsu province, China—died 1636) Chinese painter, calligrapher, and theoretician of the late Ming period. He is noted especially for his writings on Chinese painting, which he divided into the Northern school, which taught the acquisition of truth, and the Southern school, which emphasized sudden, intuitive understanding. At the centre of the scholarly ideal of the Southern school was the art of calligraphy, which expressed the true nature of the artist without the interposition of pictorial description. Dong Qichang's own paintings stress stark forms, seemingly anomalous spatial renderings, and naive handling of ink and brush. His ideas continue to influence Chinese aesthetic theory.
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(born Sept. 2, 1837, Xingyi, Guizhou province, China—died Oct. 4, 1909) Chinese classicist and one of the foremost reformers of his time. From 1862 to 1882 he was a scholar and educational director; from 1882 to 1907 he rose from a provincial to a national leader. He supported the dowager empress Cixi, who in turn favoured him with many promotions. Concerned with rejuvenating China, he searched for a way for China to survive in the modern world that could accommodate Western knowledge but preserve traditional ways. His attempt to launch China's first iron-and-steel works failed, but he later built a railway that extended from Hankou to near Beijing, and he founded a mint, tanneries, tile and silk factories, and paper, cotton, and wool mills. In response to China's defeat in the Sino-Japanese War, Zhang turned his attention to education, encouraging study abroad for Chinese students, establishment of a school system, translation of Western and Japanese books, and acquisition of knowledge from foreign newspapers. He also urged that civil service examinations be abolished, which occurred in 1905. Seealso Zeng Guofan.
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Lu Hao-tung (陸皓東 pinyin: Lù Hàodōng) (1868-1895), born Lu Chung-gui (中桂 Zhōngguì), courtesy name Hsien-hsiang (獻香 Xiànxiāng), was the first "revolutionary martyr" of the Republic of China. In the same year he died, he designed the "Blue Sky with a White Sun" emblem that came to be used as the Kuomintang (KMT) party flag, national emblem of the Republic of China, and the canton of the flag of the Republic of China.
Born in Cuiheng Village, Xiangshan County, Guangdong, Lu Hao-tung had been a playmate and close friend of Sun Yat-sen since they were classmates at the Lu-shi Ancestral Temple (陸氏祖祠) school. They deliberately damaged the statue of the god Pak Tai, and were scorned by the villagers. Lu fled the village after this incident, and arrived at Shanghai later to study at the Shanghai Telegram School (學堂). During that time, he worked for the Wuhu Telegram Office (蕪湖電報局).