(officially Tulancingo de Bravo
) is the second-largest city in the Mexican state
. It is located in the southeastern part of the state and is municipal seat of the Tulancingo municipality
and of the Archdiocese of Tulancingo
. The city had a 2005 census population of 96,538, while Tulancingo de Bravo municipality had a population of 129,935. The municipality's area is 290.4 km² (112.12 sq mi). The name Tulancingo
can refer to the city, the municipality, the valley or the river
The name Tulancingo comes from the word tollan-tzinco
, which may mean "the small tule", "the small Tollán", "behind the tules", or "in the tule field". The word Bravo
was added to the name in honor of Mexican President Nicolás Bravo
The city of Tulancingo is situated in the Valle de Tulancingo
or Tulancingo valley in the southeastern part of the state. Other municipalities found in the valley are Metepec
, Cuautepec de Hinojosa
and Santiago Tulantepec de Lugo Guerrero
. The Tulancingo River
runs through the city. The municipality of Tulancingo borders on the north with Metepec, on the east with Acaxochitlán and Cuautepec de Hinojosa on the south with Santiago Tualantepec de Lugo Guerrero and on the west with Acatlán and Singuilucan.
The climate in Tulancingo is temperate, with rainy summers and dry winters. Snowfall is a rare occurrence; Tulancingo received a light dusting of snow in January, 2008, and before that the last occurrence of snow was in 1980.
The Tulancingo valley is a fertile area where corn (maize), barley and legumes are cultivated. Holstein cattle and Suffolk sheep are popular, and approximately 40,000 liters of milk are produced daily in the valley. There are also mining operations producing sand
and a red volcanic gravel called tezontle
, used in building.
Industrial production mainly centers on manufacturing a variety of fabrics.
In the service sector, there are many good quality hotels and restaurants, and several important medical centers and hospitals.
The majority of those who live in the Tulancingo area speak Spanish
but there is a small portion of indigenous people who speak Tepehua
. There are 80,000 registered voters in the city. The city's population is divided among 51% men and 49% women. The Tulancingo valley is home to more than 250,000 people.
There are three public universities and seven private universities in Tualancingo offering studies in agriculture, law, accounting, business administration, computer science and tourism. There are also many technical schools. The principal universities are: Rancho Universitario, an affiliate of the Universidad Autónoma del Estado de Hidalgo
, Universidad Tecnológica, Centro Universitario de Oriente de Hidalgo, an affiliate of the UNAM
, Universidad Tollantzingo, Normal Superior Luis Donaldo Colosio, Universidad Alfonso Cravioto, and Universidad Politécnica de Tulancingo.
There are 68 preschools, 29 grade schools, 30 high schools in Tulancingo which employ more than 1,000 teachers. There are also five public libraries in Tulancingo.
The northern part of the Tulancingo valley, the Tepehua Otomí mountains and the town of Acaxochitlán dates to the Jurassic period. The central area where the modern city of Tulancingo currently stands is made of solidified lava, which is also mined to extract sand and tezontle, which is used for building.
In Santiago Tulantepec, a small town to the south of Tulancingo, remains of wooly mammoths have been found, which are dated to about 6,000 years ago.
There is also a small pyramid located in the archeological zone of Huapalcalco a few minutes to the north of the city. The pyramid is dated to the 6th century.
Tourism and culture
There is a religious celebration held each year on August 2
, called Día de Nuestra Señora de los Ángeles
, which attracts many visitors. The annual municipal fair is also held in Tulancingo each August.
Tulancingo is a haven for writers, painters, sculptors, musicians and other artists, and different cultural festivals and expos are held at different times of the year for their benefit.
The main cathedral in Tulancingo is an example of colonial religious architecture. Its construction was started in 1528 by the Franciscan order. With stone walls almost a meter thick, it is an imposing building looking over the central park/plaza, La Floresta, in Tulancingo.
The building was restored in 1788 by the architect José Damián Ortiz de Castro, who was also part of planning and building the main cathedral in Mexico City. The building now has a neoclassical, triangular facade. The baptismal is an impressive work made of carved stone.