Trudeau

Trudeau

[troo-doh]
Trudeau, Edward Livingston, 1848-1915, American physician, b. New York City, M.D. Columbia, 1871. As a result of taking care of his brother, who had tuberculosis, he developed the disease. He went to live in the Adirondacks, spending much time in the open, and regained his health. Seeking to aid others suffering from tuberculosis, he founded (1884) at Saranac Lake the Trudeau Sanatorium, where he employed the open-air treatment of the disease and organized (1894) the first laboratory for the study of tuberculosis. The sanatorium closed in 1954 for lack of patients, modern methods of early diagnosis and of treatment having drastically reduced incidence of the disease.

See his autobiography (1916); biography by K. E. Harrod (1960); L. Brown et al., Edward Livingston Trudeau: A Symposium (1935).

Trudeau, Garry Beekman, 1948-, American political cartoonist, b. New York City. Since its debut in 1969, his comic strip "Doonesbury" has satirized contemporary events, personalities, and lifestyles, and many newspapers run the comic strip on the editorial page. He won a Pulitzer prize in 1975 for editorial cartooning. In 1983, he coauthored a stage version of the comic strip.
Trudeau, Pierre Elliott (Joseph Philippe Pierre Ives Elliott Trudeau), 1919-2000, prime minister of Canada (1968-79, 1980-84), b. Montreal. He attended the Univ. of Montreal, Harvard, the École des Sciences Politiques in Paris, and the London School of Economics. A lawyer and law professor known for championing liberal causes, Trudeau was elected (1965) to the House of Commons as a Liberal and became (1967) concurrently minister of justice and attorney general in Lester Pearson's government. Trudeau succeeded Pearson as Liberal party leader and prime minister in 1968. A vigorous and even dashing young leader, he won a landslide victory in elections called shortly after he took office and became the focus of a popular enthusiasm that came to be called "Trudeaumania."

Pursuing independence from U.S. influence, he recognized (1970) the People's Republic of China and promoted Canadian control of its own economy and culture. He also campaigned for world peace and nuclear disarmament. In 1970, after terrorist activities by the Front de Libération du Québec, he temporarily instituted martial law. Although the Liberal party lost its majority in parliament in the general elections of Oct., 1972, Trudeau remained in office, relying on the support of the small New Democratic party to give him a parliamentary majority. His government was defeated (May, 1974) on a motion of no confidence brought against the budget, but in the ensuing elections (July, 1974) Trudeau and the Liberals regained their parliamentary majority.

Briefly out of office (1979-80) after the Progressive Conservatives won the 1979 election, he returned to power in 1980. Defending his concept of a unified federalist nation against the forces of separatism, he successfully campaigned for the rejection of independence by Quebec voters in a referendum in his native province. That year he also proposed a new constitution for Canada, independent of the British Parliament, and on Apr. 17, 1982, Queen Elizabeth II signed the Constitution Act, 1982 (see Canada Act), which gave Canada complete independence. Sensitive to the linguistic preferences of his fellow French Canadians, he led Canada to become an officially bilingual nation in 1984 and was a consistent supporter of multiculturalism. Trudeau retired that same year, having played a pivotal role in the political development of Canada in the 20th cent. He was succeeded as prime minister and party leader by John Turner.

See his Conversation with Canadians (1972), Memoirs (1993), and Against the Current: Selected Writings 1939-1996, ed. by G. Pelletier (1997).

(born Oct. 18, 1919, Montreal, Que., Can.—died Sept. 28, 2000, Montreal) Prime minister of Canada (1968–79, 1980–84). He practiced law before being elected to the Canadian House of Commons (1966–84). He was minister of justice (1967–68) in Lester Pearson's administration. He became leader of the Liberal Party and prime minister in 1968. A determined antiseparatist, he advocated a strong federal government and took a determined stand against separatist terrorists. After nine months out of office, he returned in 1980 to initiate reforms that called for the constitutional “patriation,” or transfer, of the amending authority from the British Parliament to Canada. To this end, he effected passage of the Canada Act, which precipitated Canada's official independence from Britain. His term saw the adoption of official bilingualism. He spent his final years in office seeking greater economic independence for Canada, forming better trade relations between industrialized democracies and developing countries, and urging further international disarmament talks. He resigned as leader of the Liberal Party and retired from politics in 1984, by which time he was the longest-serving leader of any Western democracy.

Learn more about Trudeau, Pierre (Elliott) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

(born Oct. 18, 1919, Montreal, Que., Can.—died Sept. 28, 2000, Montreal) Prime minister of Canada (1968–79, 1980–84). He practiced law before being elected to the Canadian House of Commons (1966–84). He was minister of justice (1967–68) in Lester Pearson's administration. He became leader of the Liberal Party and prime minister in 1968. A determined antiseparatist, he advocated a strong federal government and took a determined stand against separatist terrorists. After nine months out of office, he returned in 1980 to initiate reforms that called for the constitutional “patriation,” or transfer, of the amending authority from the British Parliament to Canada. To this end, he effected passage of the Canada Act, which precipitated Canada's official independence from Britain. His term saw the adoption of official bilingualism. He spent his final years in office seeking greater economic independence for Canada, forming better trade relations between industrialized democracies and developing countries, and urging further international disarmament talks. He resigned as leader of the Liberal Party and retired from politics in 1984, by which time he was the longest-serving leader of any Western democracy.

Learn more about Trudeau, Pierre (Elliott) with a free trial on Britannica.com.


Collège Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau is part of River East Transcona School Division in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It opened its doors in September 1990 with a population of 140 students and 14 teachers. By 2006, the school had grown to 330 students and a staff of 21 teachers. In 2006 Collège Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau was designated an UNESCO school. It was the first public building in Canada to be named after former Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.

Courses

A variety of courses are offered; however, the choice is limited due to the demographics of the student population. Throughout the years both English and French courses are mandatory, as well as mathematics.

Grade Nine Courses

During grade nine students are required to following courses spread out over two semesters: French 10F and 11G, Language Arts 10F, Mathematics 10F and 11G, Science 10F, Social Studies 10G, Physical Education 10G, and another course of their choice:

  • Band 10G
  • Choir 10G
  • Vocal Jazz 10G
  • Jazz Band 10G
  • Career Exploration 21G
  • Computer Applications 20S

Grade Ten Courses

Throughout the grade ten year students are required to follow the required courses: French 20F, English 20F, at least one Mathematics 20S course (Consumer, Applied, or Pre-Calculus), Geography 20G, Science 20F, Physical Education 20G, plus a minimum of two courses of their choice:

  • Band 20G
  • Choir 20G
  • Vocal Jazz 20G
  • Jazz Band 20G
  • Leadership 21G
  • Career Exploration 21G
  • Computer Applications 20S
  • Computer Science 20S
  • A second or third math course

Grade Eleven Courses

Grade Eleven students are required to take the following courses throughout their academic year: French 30S, English 30S, at least one Mathematics 30S course (Consumer, Applied, or Pre-Calculus), History (30S or 30G), at least one Science 30S or 30G course (Biology 30G or 30S, Physics 30S, or Chemistry 30S) and at least one course of their choice:

  • Band 30S
  • Choir 30S
  • Vocal Jazz 30S
  • Jazz Band 30S
  • Leadership 31G
  • Career Exploration 31G
  • Computer Science 30S
  • Dramatic Arts 30S
  • Physical Education 31G
  • A second or third math course
  • A second or third science course

Grade Twelve Courses

Upon finishing their final year, grade twelve students are required to follow the required courses if they expect to graduate: French 40S, English Comprehensive 40S, at least one Mathematics 40S course (Consumer, Applied, or Pre-Calculus), and at least one course of their choice:

  • Biology 40S or 40G
  • Physics 40S
  • Chemistry 40S
  • Physical Education 41G
  • World Issues 40S
  • Band 40S
  • Choir 40S
  • Vocal Jazz 40S
  • Jazz Band 40S
  • Law 40S
  • Multi-Media 41G
  • Co-Operative Education 41G
  • ELA: Literary Focus 40S
  • ELA: Transactional Focus 40S
  • Calculus & Mathematics 45S
  • Community Service 41G

In both French and Mathematics students will be required to take a provincial exam at the end of the semester, and are required to pass the course in order to graduate.

A minimum of five credits must be met in order to be eligible to apply to universities.

External links

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