See his autobiography (1916); biography by K. E. Harrod (1960); L. Brown et al., Edward Livingston Trudeau: A Symposium (1935).
Pursuing independence from U.S. influence, he recognized (1970) the People's Republic of China and promoted Canadian control of its own economy and culture. He also campaigned for world peace and nuclear disarmament. In 1970, after terrorist activities by the Front de Libération du Québec, he temporarily instituted martial law. Although the Liberal party lost its majority in parliament in the general elections of Oct., 1972, Trudeau remained in office, relying on the support of the small New Democratic party to give him a parliamentary majority. His government was defeated (May, 1974) on a motion of no confidence brought against the budget, but in the ensuing elections (July, 1974) Trudeau and the Liberals regained their parliamentary majority.
Briefly out of office (1979-80) after the Progressive Conservatives won the 1979 election, he returned to power in 1980. Defending his concept of a unified federalist nation against the forces of separatism, he successfully campaigned for the rejection of independence by Quebec voters in a referendum in his native province. That year he also proposed a new constitution for Canada, independent of the British Parliament, and on Apr. 17, 1982, Queen Elizabeth II signed the Constitution Act, 1982 (see Canada Act), which gave Canada complete independence. Sensitive to the linguistic preferences of his fellow French Canadians, he led Canada to become an officially bilingual nation in 1984 and was a consistent supporter of multiculturalism. Trudeau retired that same year, having played a pivotal role in the political development of Canada in the 20th cent. He was succeeded as prime minister and party leader by John Turner.
See his Conversation with Canadians (1972), Memoirs (1993), and Against the Current: Selected Writings 1939-1996, ed. by G. Pelletier (1997).
Collège Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau is part of River East Transcona School Division in Winnipeg, Manitoba. It opened its doors in September 1990 with a population of 140 students and 14 teachers. By 2006, the school had grown to 330 students and a staff of 21 teachers. In 2006 Collège Pierre-Elliott-Trudeau was designated an UNESCO school. It was the first public building in Canada to be named after former Prime Minister Pierre Elliott Trudeau.
A variety of courses are offered; however, the choice is limited due to the demographics of the student population. Throughout the years both English and French courses are mandatory, as well as mathematics.
Grade Nine Courses
During grade nine students are required to following courses spread out over two semesters: French 10F and 11G, Language Arts 10F, Mathematics 10F and 11G, Science 10F, Social Studies 10G, Physical Education 10G, and another course of their choice:
Grade Ten Courses
Throughout the grade ten year students are required to follow the required courses: French 20F, English 20F, at least one Mathematics 20S course (Consumer, Applied, or Pre-Calculus), Geography 20G, Science 20F, Physical Education 20G, plus a minimum of two courses of their choice:
Grade Eleven Courses
Grade Eleven students are required to take the following courses throughout their academic year: French 30S, English 30S, at least one Mathematics 30S course (Consumer, Applied, or Pre-Calculus), History (30S or 30G), at least one Science 30S or 30G course (Biology 30G or 30S, Physics 30S, or Chemistry 30S) and at least one course of their choice:
Grade Twelve Courses
Upon finishing their final year, grade twelve students are required to follow the required courses if they expect to graduate: French 40S, English Comprehensive 40S, at least one Mathematics 40S course (Consumer, Applied, or Pre-Calculus), and at least one course of their choice:
In both French and Mathematics students will be required to take a provincial exam at the end of the semester, and are required to pass the course in order to graduate.
A minimum of five credits must be met in order to be eligible to apply to universities.