Historical region, North Africa. It is now part of northwestern Libya. Colonized by the Phoenicians in the 7th century BC, it was named for its three chief cities—Leptis Magna, Oea (Tripoli), and Sabrata. It comprised the eastern part of Carthaginian territory by the 3rd century BC and came under Numidian chieftains in the mid-2nd century BC. After the Numidian War (46 BC), it was attached to the Roman province of Africa Nova (see Roman Africa). It fell under the Islamic caliphate in the 7th century AD and was ruled by successive Arab and Berber (Amazigh) dynasties before becoming part of the Ottoman Empire in 1551. The region gained its independence in 1711. As part of the Barbary Coast, corsairs operating from there plundered shipping in the Mediterranean Sea, leading to the Tripolitan War with the U.S. (1801–05). It came under Ottoman administration again in 1835. The Italians acquired the region in 1912, and it was the scene of fierce fighting between British and German forces during the North Africa campaigns (1942–43) of World War II. In 1951, with the provinces of Cyrenaica and Fezzan, it formed the independent kingdom of Libya; the provinces were dissolved in 1963.
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Tripolitania or Tripolitana (Arabic: طرابلس, transliterated: Tarābulus) is a historic region and an ex Province or State ("muhafazah" or "wilayah") of Libya (alongside Cyrenaica and Fezzan). ), in an old system of administrative divisions which was abolished in the early 1970s in favour of a system of smaller-size municipality or "baladiyat" (singular "baladiyah") . The "Baladiyat"-system was subsequently changed many times and has lately become "Sha'biyat"-system. What used to be Tripolitania in the old system became divided up into several "Baladiyat" or "Sha'biyat", see administrative divisions in Libya. In the old system, Tripolitania included Tripoli, the capital city of Libya and a vast north-western portion of the country; in the subsequent systems, the "Baladiyah" or "Sha'biyah" of Tripoli has become much smaller than the original Tripolitania to include merely the city of Tripoli and its more immediate surroundings. Because the City and the "Sha'biyah" are nowadays almost coextensive, the term Tripolitania is of more value for historical contexts than for contemporary ones. In Arabic the same word (طرابلس ) is used for both the City and the region, and that word alone would be understood to mean only the City; in order to designate Tripolitania in Arabic, a word like "State", "Province" or "Sha'biyah" must be used as a qualifier.
Italy officially granted autonomy after the war, but gradually occupied the region. Originally administered as part of a single colony, Tripolitania was a separate colony from 26 June 1927 to 3 December 1934, when it was merged into "Libya".
During World War II Libya was occupied by the Allies and until 1947 Tripolitania (and the region of Cyrenaica) were administered by the United Kingdom. Italy formally renounced its claim upon the territory in the same year.
|1911||Independent government||In rebellion against Ottoman sovereignty|
|3 October 1911||Italian occupation|
|1911 to March 1913||Sulayman ibn ‘Abd Allah al-Baruni, Ruler of Tripolitania|
|16 November 1918||Tripolitanian Republic|
|16 November 1918 to November 1920||Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid, Chairman of the Council of the Republic|
|18 May 1919||nominally under Italian Suzerainty|
|November 1920 to 1923||Ahmad Tahir al-Murayyid, Chairman of the Central Reform Board|
|12 November 1922||Annexed by Italy|
|October 1911||Raffaele Borea Ricci d'Olmo, Governor|
|11 October 1911 to 1912||Carlo Francesco Giovanni Battista Caneva, Governor|
|1912 to 1913||Ottavio Ragni, Governor|
|2 June 1913 to 1914||Vincenzo Garioni, Governor|
|1914 to 1915||Luigi Druetti, Governor|
|1915 to 1915||Iulio Cesare Tassoni, Governor|
|1915 to 1918||Giovanni Battista Ameglio, Governor|
|6 July 1920 to July 1921||Luigi Mercatelli, Governor|
|July 1921 to July 1925||Giuseppe Volpi, conte di Misurata, Governor|
|July 1925 to 24 January 1929||Emilio De Bono, Governor|
|24 January 1929 to 31 December 1933||Pietro Badoglio, Governor|
|1 January 1934||Incorporated into Libya|
|23 October 1942||British Administration|
|December 1942 to 26 January 1943||Maurice Stanley Lush, Governor|
|1943 to 1946||Travers Robert Blackley, Administrator|
|1946 to April 1949||Travers Robert Blackley, Administrator|
|April 1949 to 24 December 1951||Travers Robert Blackley, Resident|
|24 December 1951||Incorporated into Libya|