Transportation systems, usually publicly but sometimes privately owned and operated, designed to move large numbers of people in various types of vehicles in cities, suburbs, and large metropolitan areas. Modern mass transit is an outgrowth of industrialization and urbanization. In the 1830s early mass transit in New York City included horse-drawn buses, which were soon replaced by fixed-rail horse-drawn trolleys. By 1900 motorized buses had appeared in Europe and America. With the advent of electricity, streetcars and subways were introduced in many large cities. In the 20th century the automobile's increasing popularity undermined mass transit development; fixed-rail streetcar systems were widely removed to provide space for cars. Concern over air pollution has revived interest in light-rail transit and has led to regional mass transit systems.
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Development and operation of aircraft. In 1783 the balloon became the first aircraft to carry humans. Production of a successful glider in 1891 and refinement of the internal-combustion engine led to the first successful engine-powered airplane flight by Wilbur and Orville Wright in 1903. World War I accelerated the expansion of aviation, and in the 1920s the first small airlines began carrying mail and passengers. World War II was another period of innovation in aircraft size, speed, and range. In the late 1940s the jet engine made possible the subsequent development of commercial airlines throughout the world. Seealso airship; helicopter; seaplane.
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Transportation brokerage services and Medicaid beneficiaries' access to care.(Environmental Context and Access)(Report)
Feb 01, 2009; Transportation can be a major access barrier to timely health care for low-income populations. The literature shows two...