Art and practice of translating the Bible. The Old Testament was originally written in Hebrew, with scattered passages of Aramaic. It was first translated in its entirety into Aramaic and then, in the 3rd century AD, into Greek (the Septuagint). Hebrew scholars created the authoritative Masoretic text (6th–10th century) from Aramaic Targums, the original Hebrew scrolls having been lost. The New Testament was originally in Greek or Aramaic. Christians translated both Testaments into Coptic, Ethiopian, Gothic, and Latin. St. Jerome's Latin Vulgate (405) was the standard Christian translation for 1,000 years. New learning in the 15th–16th century generated new translations. Martin Luther translated the entire Bible into German (1522–34). The first complete English translation, credited to John Wycliffe, appeared in 1382, but it was the King James version (1611) that became the standard for more than three centuries. By the late 20th century the entire Bible had been translated into 250 languages and portions of it into more than 1,300.
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One approach to pseudo-translation involves the addition of special characters typical for the locale of the target language (for example a diacritical mark like a German Umlaut 'ä'), as well as changing the number of characters belonging to the text. In that approach, the text is pseudo-translated in a way that allows to recognize the original source text. Another pseudo-translation solution involves the use of machine translation technology, which not only generates the necessary special characters but also gives developers a good indication of the length of a string in a particular target language.
Pseudo-translation precedes the actual translation in the software development process. Its purpose is to test that the software is prepared for translation.
Pseudo-translation allows verifying that:
Verifying no incorrect concatenations have been used requires putting begin and end markers in the pseudo-text. For example: '<' and '>'. It is however not necessary to ensure no truncation in place by using pseudo translation. As the translation from one language to another (for instance, English to German) sometimes requires additional 100% or more space to hold the translated content, it may degrade the quality of the original language (for instance, English) by allocating more wasteful space to just be able to accommodate German version of this item. In this case, subsequent localization process should ensure the translation quality be making sure that the space is adequate for the targeting language.