Townsend

Townsend

[toun-zuhnd]
Harris, Townsend, 1804-78, American merchant and diplomat, b. Sandy Hill, N.Y. A merchant in New York City for many years, he became (1846) a member of the board of education, served as its president (1846-48), and helped obtain the legislation chartering the present College of the City of New York. Appointed (1855) consul general to Japan, he arrived at Shimoda in 1856, the first U.S. diplomat in Japan after that country had been opened up by Commodore Matthew C. Perry. In 1859, Harris was raised to be minister. Having previously negotiated a commercial treaty with Siam, he won the confidence of the Japanese and obtained a commercial treaty (1858) that, in contrast to the demands of other Western powers, was notably moderate. He returned to the United States in 1861.

See M. E. Cosenza, ed., The Complete Journal of Townsend Harris (1930, 2d ed. 1959); C. Crow, He Opened the Door of Japan (1939).

Townsend, Francis Everett, 1867-1960, American reformer, leader of an old-age pension movement, b. Fairbury, Ill., grad. Univ. of Nebraska medical school, 1903. He practiced medicine in several Western states before he settled (1919) at Long Beach, Calif. In 1933, at the height of the economic depression, he produced the Townsend plan, which called for a pension of $200 per month for citizens of 60 years of age or older, on condition that the $200 be spent in the United States within a month after receipt. The funds were to be raised principally by a 2% federal sales tax. The simplicity of the proposal, the apostolic zeal of Townsend, and the organization of the Townsendites into a formidable pressure group brought increasing support for the plan despite its condemnation by competent economists. Bills to establish the Townsend plan were continually defeated in Congress after 1935, and the strength of the movement declined after the economy began to recover and the effects of social security were felt in the United States. Townsend modified a few of the provisions of his plan in the 1940s.
Townsend, Mount, 7,260 ft (2,213 m) high, SE New South Wales, in the Australian Alps. The second tallest peak in Australia, it was explored by Polish Count Strzelecki. Thought to be Australia's highest peak, it was at first called Mt. Kosciusko, in honor of a Polish patriot. When a higher peak, the present Mt. Kosciusko, was discovered, the name was changed to Mt. Townsend.

(born Oct. 3, 1804, Sandy Hill, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 25, 1878, New York City) U.S. diplomat. He served as president of New York City's board of education and helped found the Free Academy (later City College of New York). In 1847 he left New York to embark on trading voyages in the Pacific and Indian oceans. In 1853 he met Matthew Perry in Shanghai and tried to accompany him to Japan, but his bid was rejected. In 1856 he secured an appointment as consul general to Japan; he was unwelcome at first, but changing attitudes in Japan and Harris's perseverance produced a commercial treaty in 1858 that opened Japanese ports to U.S. trade.

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(born Oct. 3, 1804, Sandy Hill, N.Y., U.S.—died Feb. 25, 1878, New York City) U.S. diplomat. He served as president of New York City's board of education and helped found the Free Academy (later City College of New York). In 1847 he left New York to embark on trading voyages in the Pacific and Indian oceans. In 1853 he met Matthew Perry in Shanghai and tried to accompany him to Japan, but his bid was rejected. In 1856 he secured an appointment as consul general to Japan; he was unwelcome at first, but changing attitudes in Japan and Harris's perseverance produced a commercial treaty in 1858 that opened Japanese ports to U.S. trade.

Learn more about Harris, Townsend with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Townsend is a town in New Castle County, Delaware, United States. The population was 346 at the 2000 census. The center of population of Delaware is located in Townsend

Geography

Townsend is located at (39.394200, -75.692670).

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.6 square miles (1.5 km²), all of it land.

Demographics

As of the census of 2000, there were 346 people, 132 households, and 95 families residing in the town. The population density was 582.3 people per square mile (226.4/km²). There were 151 housing units at an average density of 254.1/sq mi (98.8/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 84.10% White, 11.56% African American, 0.87% Native American, 0.87% Asian, 2.60% from other races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.60% of the population.

There were 132 households out of which 36.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.1% were married couples living together, 9.8% had a female householder with no husband present, and 28.0% were non-families. 20.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.62 and the average family size was 3.06.

In the town the population was spread out with 26.9% under the age of 18, 7.8% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 20.5% from 45 to 64, and 12.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 92.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.8 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $47,500, and the median income for a family was $48,875. Males had a median income of $27,250 versus $28,409 for females. The per capita income for the town was $17,671. About 2.1% of families and 1.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including none of those under age 18 and 8.7% of those age 65 or over.

References

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