Wolfe, Tom (Thomas Kennerly Wolfe, Jr.), 1931-, American journalist and novelist, b. Richmond, Va. Wolfe first gained fame for his studies of contemporary American culture in a colorful style known as New Journalism. His journalistic works include The Kandy-Kolored Tangerine-Flake Streamline Baby (1965), The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test (1968), Radical Chic and Mau-mauing the Flak Catchers (1970), The Right Stuff (1975), From Bauhaus to Our House (1981), and the anthology Hooking Up (2000). He has also written novels: The Bonfire of the Vanities (1987), a satiric look at a New York City torn by race and class; A Man in Full (1998), the saga of an Atlanta millionaire and a tellingly comic portrait of the New South; and I Am Charlotte Simmons (2004), a glimpse at randy contemporary collegians.
Taylor, Tom, 1817-80, English dramatist and editor. His most famous play is Our American Cousin (1858), performed at Ford's Theater in Washington, D. C., when Lincoln was assassinated. Of his more than 100 plays, others are The Ticket-of-Leave Man (1863) and, written with his friend Charles Reade, Masks and Faces (1852). He edited B. R. Haydon's autobiography (1853, new ed. 1926) and was editor of Punch from 1874 to 1880.

See W. Tolles, Tom Taylor and the Victorian Drama (1940).

Mann, Tom, 1856-1941, British labor leader and socialist. He was an organizer of the 1889 London dock strike, which was an important step in the unionization of unskilled English laborers. Secretary (1894-97) of the Independent Labour party, he helped to organize (1902) the Labour party in Australia. Mann returned from Australia a proponent of syndicalism, and he was one of the founders (1920) of the British Communist party. He was jailed several times for his radical activities.

See his memoirs (1923, repr. 1967).

Hanks, Tom, 1956-, American film actor famous for his roles as an amiable American everyman, b. Concord, Calif., as Thomas Jeffrey Hanks. In 1980 he acted in his first film, and in 1980-82 he co-starred in a television sitcom. Hanks subsequently appeared in numerous Hollywood comedies, among them Splash (1984), Big (1988), the baseball-themed A League of Their Own (1992), and the romantic comedy Sleepless in Seattle (1993). He turned to serious drama in Philadelphia (1993), receiving an Academy Award for his portrayal of an AIDS-stricken gay lawyer, and won a second Oscar for his performance in the title role of the box-office smash Forest Gump (1994). His later films include Apollo 13 (1995), Saving Private Ryan (1998), Cast Away (2000), The Terminal (2004), The Da Vinci Code (2006), and Charlie Wilson's War (2007). Hanks wrote, directed, and played in the film That Thing You Do! (1996), has voiced characters in several animated features, and has produced and directed television miniseries.
Ridge, Tom (Thomas Joseph Ridge), 1945-, U.S. politician and government official, first secretary of the Dept. of Homeland Security (2003-5), b. Munhall, Pa. A graduate of Harvard (1967) and the Dickinson School of Law (1972) who served (1968-70) in the infantry in Vietnam, Ridge worked in private law practice and became active in the Republican party. In 1982 he was elected to the House of Representatives from Pennsylvania and served six terms. Elected governor of his home state in 1994, he was in his second term when President George W. Bush asked him to head the Office of Homeland Security in the aftermath of the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks (see Pentagon, the; World Trade Center). Chosen to head the newly established Dept. of Homeland Security (DHS) in 2003, Ridge oversaw the integration of the 22 agencies that were consolidated and reorganized in the DHS.
Seaver, Tom, 1944-, American baseball pitcher and sportscaster, b. Fresno, Calif. During his career (1967-86), he won a total of 311 games for the New York Mets, Cincinnati Reds, Chicago White Sox, and Boston Red Sox. He was 1967 Rookie of the Year and won the National League Cy Young Award three times (1969, 1973, and 1975). He retired ranked third on the all-time strikeout list (3,640) and was inducted into the National Baseball Hall of Fame in 1992.
DeLay, Tom (Thomas Dale DeLay), 1947-, American politician, b. Laredo, Tex., grad. Univ. of Houston (B.S., 1970). A conservative Republican businessman, he entered politics (1979) as a Texas state legislator, serving until 1984, when he was first elected to the U.S. House of Representatives. He rose quickly in House Republican ranks, becoming majority whip in 1995, and gaining a reputation for his exceptional fund-raising abilities. When Rep. Dennis Hastert was elected Speaker in 1999, many saw DeLay, who aquired the nickname "the Hammer" because of his strong, sometimes unsubtle efforts to assure and enforce party control of the House, as the greater force among House Republicans. His political tactics, however, also led to several admonishments from the House ethics committee.

DeLay became a leading voice for reduced Social Security and capital gains taxes, for the protection of business and free trade, and for deregulation in many areas of American life. He also expressed opposition to gun control while leading attacks on various aspects of modern culture, indicting such perceived evils as birth control, evolutionary theory, and day care. During the Lewinsky scandal, he led the successful effort to impeach President Bill Clinton, and he worked behind the scenes to orchestrate demonstrations opposing a recount in Florida in the 2000 presidential election. DeLay became House majority leader in 2003. In 2005 he was charged with conspiracy to circumvent Texas restrictions on campaign contributions and money laundering; because of the indictment he temporarily resigned the majority leader's post. The circumvention charge was subsequently dismissed, but in 2006, under pressure, he made his resignation as majority leader permanent and subsequently resigned from Congress. His No Retreat, No Surrender (2007) is a combination of autobiography, manifesto, and attack on his presumed political enemies.

Tom, river, c.525 mi (840 km) long, rising in the Alatau range, S Siberian Russia. It flows N through the Kuznetsk Basin past Novokuznetsk, Kemerovo, and Tomsk into the Ob River. It is navigable from Novokuznetsk.
Kite, Tom (Thomas O. Kite, Jr.), 1949-, American golfer, b. Austin, Tex. The 1973 Professional Golfers Association Rookie of the Year, he was also the 1989 Player of the Year. He won the 1992 U.S. Open, and was a member of the 1993 U.S. Ryder Cup team. The 1981 winner of the Vardon Trophy (for the lowest stroke average), he led the PGA in earnings that year and from 1989 through 1994 was the career earnings leader.
Thomson, Tom, 1877-1917, Canadian painter of typically Canadian outdoor scenes, b. Ontario. Thomson was self-taught. Most of the year he served as a guide at Algonquin Provincial Park in order to support himself as a painter. His love of the outdoors was reflected in bold, vibrantly colored landscapes, such as A Northern Lake (National Gall., Ottawa). Thomson was mysteriously drowned in the summer of 1917.
Stoppard, Tom, 1937-, English playwright, b. Zlín, Czechoslovakia (now in the Czech Republic), as Tomas Straussler. During his childhood he and his family moved to Singapore, later (1946) settling in Bristol, England, where he became a journalist. In 1960 he moved to London, where he became a theater critic and wrote radio plays. He first gained prominence with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead (1967), a witty drama about peripheral characters in Shakespeare's Hamlet. Stoppard is noted for his idiosyncratic style, artful and complex construction, deft parody, profound intellectuality, wide-ranging knowledge, and ability to find significance in wordplay and bizarre juxtapositions of language and character. In Travesties (1974), for example, James Joyce, Lenin, and Tristan Tzara collaborate on a production of Oscar Wilde's play The Importance of Being Earnest.

Many critics consider his Jumpers (1973), a play that includes gymnastics, murder, song, dance, and ethical discussion, and Arcadia (1993), a drama that takes place in both 1809 and the early 1990s and is centered on a 19th-century mathematical prodigy and a 20th-century literary scholar, his finest works. Stoppard's other plays include The Real Inspector Hound (1968); Dirty Linen (1976); The Real Thing (1982); Hapgood (1988); Indian Ink (1995); The Invention of Love (1997); and Rock 'n' Roll (2006). One of his most complex and acclaimed later works, the trilogy The Coast of Utopia (2002), explores the roots of the Russian Revolution via six late 19th-century intellectuals and their associates and spans 35 years.

Stoppard is also a skilled screenwriter; he was a main scriptwriter for Brazil (1985) and Empire of the Sun (1987), and won particular acclaim for his Shakespeare in Love (1998, with Marc Norman). He has also has written for television, and is the author of a novel, Lord Malaquist and Mr. Moon (1966), and short stories.

See P. Delaney, ed., Tom Stoppard in Conversation (1994) and M. Gussow, Conversations with Stoppard (1995, rev. ed. 2003); biography by I. Nadel (2001); studies by R. Hayman (1977), V. L. Cahn (1979), J. Hunter (1982); T. R. Whitaker (1983), M. Page (1986), S. Rusinko (1986), M. Billington (1987), J. Harty, ed. (1988), A. Jenkins (1987, 1990), K. E. Kelly (1991), R. A. Andretta (1992), T. Hodgson (2001); J. Fleming (2001), J. Hunter (1982, 2005), and H. Bloom, ed. (rev. ed. 2003); K. E. Kelly, ed., Cambridge Companion to Tom Stoppard (2001).

Bradley, Tom (Thomas Bradley), 1917-98, African-American politician, b. Calvert, Tex. A sharecropper's son who became (1940) a Los Angeles police officer, he earned (1956) a law degree from Southwestern Law School and entered (1961) private practice. A Los Angeles city councilman (1963-73), he was elected the city's first black mayor in 1973. A liberal Democrat, he was reelected four times and served until 1993, during a period of Los Angeles's expansion. He ran unsuccessfully for governor of California in 1982 and 1986.
Brady, Tom (Thomas Edward Patrick Brady, Jr.), 1977-, American football player, b. San Mateo, Calif. He attended the Univ. of Michigan (1995-99), where he was co-starting quarterback (1998-99) and led the team to win the 1999 Orange Bowl. Drafted by the New England Patriots in 2000, Brady replaced the injured Drew Bledsoe in a Sept., 2001, game and became the team's starting quarterback. Canny, strong, and steady, with an accurate arm, Brady has led the Pats to three Super Bowl victories (2002, 2004-5) and was named that game's most valuable player twice (2002, 2004). In 2007, he marshaled New England's offense to what often seemed an inevitable undefeated regular season and was named the National Football League's MVP, but he failed to win the Super Bowl. Brady also passed for 50 touchdowns in 2007, breaking Peyton Manning's single-season record.
Daschle, Tom (Thomas Andrew Daschle), 1947-, U.S. senator from South Dakota (1987-2005), b. Aberdeen, S.Dak. A Democrat, he was elected to the U.S. House of Representatives in 1978, where he served four terms; he was first elected to the Senate in 1986. A low-key centrist with a reputation as a skillful negotiator, Daschle was a supporter of farm subsidies and acted as the coordinator of the failed effort to pass President Bill Clinton's comprehensive health-care bill in 1994. He subsequently continued to advocate the regulation of managed care, a patients' bill of rights, and prescription drug benefits under Medicare. Daschle served as Senate minority leader (1995-2001, 2003-2005) and majority leader (2001-3), but he failed to win reelection to the Senate in 2004. In 2009 President Barack Obama nominated him to be secretary of the Health and Human Services Dept., but he withdrew his name after it was revealed that he owed some $128,000 in back taxes on benefits he had failed to report.
Watson, Tom (Thomas Sturges Watson), 1949-, American golfer, b. Kansas City, Mo. Considered the successor to Jack Nicklaus as the game's foremost player in the late 1970s and early 1980s, Watson won the British Open in 1975, 1977, 1980, 1982, and 1987, the Masters in 1977 and 1981, the U.S. Open in 1982, and the Senior Tour Championship in 2000.
A tom-tom (not to be confused with a tamtam) is a cylindrical drum with no snare.

The tom-tom originates from Native American or Asian cultures. The tom-tom drum is also a traditional means of communication. The tom-tom drum was added to the drum kit in the early part of the 20th century.

Design history

The first drum kit tom-toms had no rims; the heads were tacked to the shell.

As major drum manufacturers began to offer tunable tom-toms with hoops and tuning lugs, a 12" drum 8" deep became standard, mounted on the left side of the bass drum. Later a 16" drum 16" deep mounted on three legs (a floor tom) was added. Finally, a second drum was mounted on the right of the bass drum, a 13" diameter drum 9" deep. Together with a 14" snare drum and a bass drum of varying size, these three made up the standard kit of five drums for most of the second half of the 20th century.

Later, the mounted tom-toms, known as hanging toms or rack toms, were deepened by one inch each, these sizes being called power toms. Extra-deep hanging toms, known as cannon depth, never achieved popularity. All these were double-headed.

Modern tom toms

Today two "power" depth tom-toms of 12x10 (12" diameter by 10" depth) and 13x11 is the most common hanging tom configuration, and would be considered standard by most drummers. Also popular is the "fusion" configuration of 10x8 and either 12x8 or 12x9, and the again popular "classic" configuration of 12x8 and 13x9, which is still used by some jazz and retro drummers. However a wide variety of configurations are commonly available and in use, at all levels from advanced student kits upwards. A third hanging tom is often used instead of a floor tom.

Single-headed tom-toms

Single-headed tom-toms have also been used in drum kits, though their use has fallen off in popularity since the 1970s. Concert toms have a single head and a shell slightly shallower than the corresponding double-headed tom. Phil Collins still uses 4 singled headed rack mount toms and 2 floor toms (Gretsch) in his setup. He claims he tunes his toms to "bark" like a seal.


Rototoms have no shell at all, just a single head and a steel frame. Unlike most other drums, they have a variable definite pitch and some composers write for them as a tuned instrument, demanding specific notes. They can be tuned quickly by rotating the head. Since the head rotates on a thread, this raises or lowers the head relative to the rim of the drum and so increases or decreases the tension in the head.

Construction and manufacture

Typically a tom consists of a shell, chromed or plated metal hardware and head.

Shell depth standards vary according to the era of manufacture and the drum style. Diameters usually range from 6 to 20 inches, with heads to fit.

Tom-Toms can be fitted with an adjustable mounting for a floor stand, or attachment to a bass drum or marching rig. They can be single or double-headed.


A crucial factor in achieving superior tone quality and ensuring durability, especially with wood, is the creation of perfectly round shells and much research and development effort has been put into this manufacturing technology.

Shells are often constructed of 6–8 wood plies (often using different woods e.g. mahogany and falkata — birch or maple are commonly used for single-wood plies), solid wood (turned) or man-made materials (e.g. fiberglass, pressed steel, acrylic glass, resin-composite). Wood or composite shells can be finished by laminating in plastic in a large variety of colors and effects (e.g sparkle or polychromatic); natural wood may be stained or left natural and painted with clear lacquer. Steel is usually chromed, fiberglass self-colored and acrylic glass tinted or clear.

Audio samples
Component Content Audio (Ogg Vorbis)
Toms 8-inch rack tom
12-inch rack tom
Floor tom
See the Drums page at Wikipedia Commons for more


One or two cast or pressed metal rims attach by threaded tension rods or lugs to nut boxes bolted onto the shell holds the heads onto the bearing edges of the shell. The tension rod assembly needs to be precision machined, cast and fitted to enable predictable and secure tuning without inhibiting resonance or introducing extra vibration. All components will be placed under great tension and experience added stresses from playing.

Mounting systems vary greatly, from a simple cast block on the shell which accepts and clamps to a rod attached to a clamp or holder to much more sophisticated arrangements where there is no attachment to the shell, instead a frame clamps to the tuning lugs.

Another sort of rod clamp system allows attachment of the drum to the tom holder without the need of a hole in the drum shell for the rod to pass through. The clamp is attached to the shell at the nodal point with two bolts so as to allow the shell to vibrate freely without degrading the shell's dynamic range and sustain. The nodal point is the location on a shell with the least amount of vibration allowing for the mount to have minimal effect on the resonance of the shell.

Some drummers use a snare stand to hold a tom, thus making it easier to position the tom.

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