City (pop., 2000: 435,125), capital of México state, central Mexico. At an elevation of about 8,800 ft (2,680 m), it is one of the highest cities in North America. The site of the modern city, founded in 1530, was inhabited by the Otomi Indians by the 13th century. It is a commercial and communications centre in an agriculture and livestock region. Its oldest church was founded soon after the Spanish conquest and rebuilt in 1585. There are many archaeological sites in the area, including some Aztec and Toltec ruins.
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Toluca is located at (41.003368, -89.133244).
The population of Toluca had increased to 3,500 by 1894 and it was incorporated as a city. Its growth continued, fueled by immigrants from Poland, Italy, and Lithuania who came to work in the coal mines. In 1907, it had approximately 6,000 inhabitants. But by 1924, the coal mines were unprofitable and they closed down. The population shrank drastically as a result.
There were 581 households out of which 25.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.7% were married couples living together, 7.7% had a female householder with no husband present, and 40.8% were non-families. 35.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.6% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.16 and the average family size was 2.81.
In the city the population was spread out with 20.9% under the age of 18, 5.8% from 18 to 24, 25.5% from 25 to 44, 20.9% from 45 to 64, and 26.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 81.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 78.6 males.
The median income for a household in the city was $37,072, and the median income for a family was $45,956. Males had a median income of $31,964 versus $23,558 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,243. About 4.8% of families and 6.5% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.2% of those under age 18 and 5.6% of those age 65 or over.