West Virginia's Moneton tribe on the Kanawha Valley has been a subject of debate. It is unknown what these people may or may not have called themselves. In the 1670s, Abraham Wood wrote and spelled the name "Moneton" and the other variant "Monyton", the only known source. Swanton educated guessed the Moneton language was Siouan. This era was a century before Chickamauga Wars. Points from the Blue Ridge Mountains and Shenandoah River tributary outcrops have been found near Beckley, West Virginia. The eastern slopes of the southern Allegheny Mountains in today's Virginia is traditionally the Mahock, "Virginia Cherokee and western rim of Tutelo Siouan language groups and those of Iroquois dialects. The Monacan, another element of Tutelo, lived all along the James River (Virginia) through the 17th century, encountered when Jamestown, Virginia was established. Virginia Siouan groups derive the Nottoway Confederacy of the Piedmont. Some Monacans, in 1728, joined the Iroquois Five Nations while some did not (Houck, p. 28: Cook, p. 48). Mooney declared this element, Moneton of western most Colonial Virginia, to be Siouan (eastern, word). Some scholars suggest Monetons were an element of Monacan and a variation of colonial spelling. The phrase Woods writes can be understood a couple of ways and having no surety. Although, Tomahitans are often identified as Carolina mountain valley Yuchi and allied with the Catawba at this time. It is not clear if the King was Yuchi, Siouan or even Cherokee. But, he was King of the Tomahitans who had no problem in shooting a Siouan. Needham and Arthur was sent to establish trade with the Cherokee.
Wood's remarks imply that some of the [sic]"Tomahittons" favored the [sic]"Occheneechees" position in Virginia's Fur Trade as middlemen. A small group of Tomahitans tied Arthur, Wood's agent, to the stake to burn him under the instructions of the "Occheneechees". The King of "Tomahittons" arrived, in time, and rescued Arthur, shooting that sub-group's leader. This seems to have put a quick end to the political dispute within the Tomahitan tribe. The Tomahitan tribe did accept members of certain other tribes to live with them as subordinates. Woods' recapitulation of Arthur's travels does yield the Moneton neighbor's of 3 days journey or about 60~90 miles away and much further away if by canoe. This distance is based on the well known explorier surveyors Christopher Gist's and George Washington's several journals ability to travel these regions. The Moneton neighbor's shot arrows at Tomahitans on sight, but did not bother themselves to give chase. Alas, this still does not achieve the question, who were the Moneton's?
Using topo maps, geographical landmarks and travel distances, Briceland (1987) demonstrates that Batts & Fallam reached Matewan on the Tug Fork. There are no known, else discovered, archaeological village sites on this branch. However, using the same method, the local university discussions point to the Guyandotte at the Logan archaeological village site being Batts & Fallam's farthest reach in exploration. The islands near Logan resembles the falls of the James River near Wood's Fort in Virginia. The gravel bar near Matewan does not resemble these early descriptions of the village's location of Batts & Fallam. These studies, also, are speculation yet to be proven.
Of the unidentfied people on the Ohio Valley, Woods writes, "He (Gabriell) made signes to them the gun was ye Tomahittons which he had a disire to take with him, but ye knife and hatchet he gave to ye king. they not knowing ye use of gunns, the king received it with great shewes of thankfullness for they had not any manner of iron instrument that hee saw amongst them". The reports of this tribe given by the Mohetan to Batts and Fallam correspond with those given to Arthur by the Moneton. Iberville in August, 1699, wrote "...some Maheingans who are savages whom we call Loups..." which document helps identify the "Mohecan" in the Kanawha Valley and assimilation. Fallam called those on the Great Kanawha River "Mohetan" and this is perhaps an example of tribal influx. In 1671, Thomas Batts wrote, "We understand the Mohecan Indians did here formerly live. It cannot be long since we found corn stalks in the ground." Batts and Fallam, Wood's agents, are credited as having discovered Kanawha Falls. Mr Batts wrote about what he saw. Earlier scholars have this site as found to be on Campbells Creek near Belle. Continued speculation otherwise, there is the archeaological village site at Marmet which is more likely Gabriel Arthur's visit with the Moneton (Maslowski et al) and very near Belle.
The Iroquois League, Huron Confederacy and Andaste (Sultzman) are well reported as blocking the Nation du Chat from attaining fire arms, the latter serving as middlemen to the French and Dutch trade. The Dutch had provided Andaste with fire arms, another of the League's enemy who also spoke a dialect of Iroquois as did the "Panther People" (corrupted Nation du Chat) otherwise Eire. Their neighbor east, at that time, of the Allegheny Mountains were the late Conestoga (Quaker for Andaste), earlier called Susquehannocks (Virginian). Susquehannocks is first mentioned in the "Voyages of Samuel Champlain" for 1615 as he calls one of their some 20 villages "Carantouan". It rallied more than 800 warriors with two other villages, Champlain reports. "Carantouan" was nearer to the New York and Pennsylvania border on the tributaries of the Susquehanna River on his map approaching towards the region from the Saint Lawrence Seaway. A Susquehanna site is located in the Eastern Panhandle at Moorefield, West Virginia.
The Mohawks and Senecas in 1642 began a crescendo invasion into Huron country of New France along the Richelieu, the Ottawa, and the St. Lawrence. New Holland supported the Mohawks (Mohawk Dutch) who became the pirates of the French fur trade. "In the face of the Iroquois attack, instead of recovering themselves the Hurons were seized with panic. Almost the entire Bear tribe took refuge with the Tobacco Nation. Others sought asylum with the Neutrals, the Eries (Ohio country), the Algonkins, or fled to the nearby islands. The Huron confederacy fell completely to pieces." "Les Tionontatacaga", shown on Homann Johann Baptist's map of 1710, had taken refuge in West Virginia's hollows (after 1701) from the great heat of the Iroquois invasion, the Moneton's territory. "Les Oniassoutlea", dialect variation Oniassontke, shown on the map are otherwise Black Minqua (Dutch for modern Mingo) and Honniasontkeronon whom were one of several elements of Honniasont. Honniasontkeronon "infested the country above the rapids of the Ohio River" as the Seneca told La Salle in 1669.. They were reported to be hereditary enemies to the Nation of Fire and kindred Chaouanons. The Kentucky River was called the Cuttawa River and the Big Sandy was called the Totteroy River, ancient Eastern Siouan territory. Earliest regional authors called these western trail branches as Catawba Trail. Honniasont is an Iroquian word meaning "wearing something around the neck", quoting L. Sultzman. These were sub-tribes of the Erie in the 17th century also known as Natio di Chat, "du Chat" (French) and ancient eastern Siouan.
Mingoe, "Before the formation of the League, the Mingos were merely the Iroquoian-speaking peoples of the Ohio Valley and it tributaries in what is now West Virginia, western Pennsylvania, and eastern Ohio," quoting Doctor Thomas McElwain. Unyææshæötká' was, or now is of few, the language of the West Virginia Mingo. Uyata'kéá' means the Cherokees (the "cave" kind, implying steep hollow). At the base of Seneca Rocks, two separate fort villages contained some 15 to 20 large (20 x 40 feet) homes. The Mann site (46LG5) proved to be a major Fort Ancient (Merriwether et al. 1995) A.D. 1450~1550 trade village occupied at Logan County. It laid up the Mud River a distant below the strange rock wall sites above Paint Creek watershed divide. The Shattera's (Swanton's Toteras element of Tutelo) village is shown at Williamson according to a letter written to the Lord of Trade, New York, dated April 13th, 1699. E.B. O'Callaghan M.D. also cited this source in his "Colonial History of the State of New York", published at Albany in 1856. There is uncertainty as which stream they migrated at first to Salem, Virginia, either their Big Sandy or the Great Kanawha rivers. The Williamson Shatteras neighbour at the south western Ohio villages, the Mosopelea, settled on the Cumberland River some time before 1673. They spoke a Siouan dialect similar to Biloxi and Tutelo, secondarily to Dakota.
The "Talligewi" (Delaware name, Heckewelder) have been said to be ancient Alleghenian. The Rickohockans (recorded in 1658) were similar to the ancient Talligewi (Hewitt). Chief Cornstalk's Kentuck Shawnese parent's (Chalahgawtha) arrived on the upper Potomac tributaries about 1692 with the Sauvanoos from the south east colonies. (Darlington) Plantationer's letters mentioning this great "People of the South" caravan passed through the Carolinias moving north by French invitation according to a Britannica 1988 article. The French suggested the Sauvanoos resettled the Forks of Ohio region. Darlington shows the town-cabins on the western side of Pennsylvania's Allegheny Mountains. The Shawnee abandoned their villages on the Cacapon Valley in 1725. The French had made a better offer to provide carpenters to build towns and teachers to school the children on the Sciota Valley in Ohio. Many Sauvanoos of the 1690s carvan groups moved into Ohio at the out-break of the French and Indian War. The Shawnee and other groups were reported as acquiring wives and replacing deceased relatives from neighbors in the 18th century, assimilation. Only but, a few decades before these 1690s arrival, some of the latest Fort Ancients are in the Kanawhan Region of the western valleys of the Alleghenian. These palisaded fort farmers were supposed to have been destroyed at least a decade and much more for most sites before Woods explorations according to early writers. The Tomahitans also lived in palisaded forts with raised platforms from which to shoot arrows at the enemy from the walls and friends to the Kanawha County, West Virginia location of the Monetons. To rebut, the Tomahitans accepted other tribe's members as subordinates-- remember.
Shawnee Chief "Wanduchale's Old Town" was opposite the Little Kanawha River, his 1st village in the early 1750s. His clan continued through Ohio. French carpenters were sent to build 28 homes of Jesuit Mohawks, this 1747 Canawagha village was located at today's village of Kanaugha, Ohio, its namesake, opposite the mouth of the Great Kanawha. These split later in the century due to politics, a few remained. The more humble mixed people's village of "Old Town" was about five miles up-stream on the flat above the flood plain on the West Virginia side of the Ohio River. This location is an archaeological site often called the "Armory Site" by arrow-head retailers today. Another old village was located at the head land flat of Robinson Creek and Falling Cliff Creek, inland. Cheregree the reconnoitre Indian map of about 1755 shows the upper Shawnee village on the east side at the mouth of the Great Kanawha River, again, about five miles below the local mixed people's "Old Town" village in Mason County, West Virginia. J. Le Tort's Trading House, today's Letart Falls, dates from 1739 adjacent the Ohio River's "Big Bend" islands and once water falls. His family was Shawnee-Delaware mix and clan included a Powhattan family and others from the east. His clientele was mostly a mix of Colonial and Native American trappers, some from the Iroquois-Shawnee "Kiskamoneto" village near today's Belleville Locks and Dam, above the river's banks in the state of Ohio. There is a large Adena Burial Mound located on the terrace or bottom land which is a small state park today along the highway below Forked Run Lake in Meigs County, Ohio. These mixed villages were not considered a threat of the French and Indian War ("Seven Years War").
By practice, the lawful permit holding associates had shipped goods in trade to the eastern Colonies. Major Lewis, during the "Big Sandy Expedition", found the Shawnee had removed themselves from the mouth of the Great Kanawha during this "Virginia Christian Cherokee" & Colonist mixed campain in 1756. In 1742, John Peter Salley passed by and did not report any occupations on the Kanawha River. Some Cherokee migrated to Kentucky and some settled among the Lower Shawnee while others acculturated with the Virginia Fur Traders as mentioned in the notes below. The latter chose to associate with the General Managers exampled by C. Gist, Major Lewis and a number of other Virginia investor's frontier agents joining or otherwise evolving to the "Fireside Cabin Culture" and resulting in employment. Including these reasons, Archaeologists have not found any "Classic" Cherokee Nation sites north-east the Kanawhan region. Indian Removal was not a popular idea in western West Virginia by their local employers, and later, new arriving settlers.
The earliest location of the Calicuas and kindred Chalaque is seen as two provinces of "Cherokee Country" of Cumberland Plateau and southern section of the Allegheny Plateau according to the Narrative (1540-41) of De Soto's expedition. What would be West Virginia Calicuas is found on Ortelius' issue in 1570 and again in 1642 by Blaeuw's map. The next map by Merian was issued about 1650 showing the Calicuas also on the general area of West Virginia.
See also, Kanawha Madonna
Another mysterious name of early Colonial Virginia's questions of it's western mountains are the Messawomecks. The name seems to be only a generalization simpliest stated. This name appears on many following variations of the Captain John Smith's original map. The Atlas Minor Gerardi Mercatoris was first published in 1628 by Jansson prints. It is the first regional map of the Virginias to include a body of water beyond the Allegheny Mountains not necessarily meaning the Pacific Ocean. Variations also show villages along the south east shores, including the name, again, in smaller print along the Allegheny Mountain's west slopes. One copy has the body of water as a short river with no beginning or end. The period's atlas is based on NOVA VIRGINIAE TABVLA by Petrus Kaerius Coelavit (Burden #223) It was published in many atlas editions until the 17th mid-century.
Étienne Brûlé and a dozen Huron were sent to meet with the Susquehanna by instructions of Champlain in 1617 to join them in war against the Iroquois League. Because Brûlé could not write, Champlain reported his path as going through New York which was not Susquehanna lands. Historians figure he saw the Delmarva Peninsula on the east side of the Chesapeake Bay as Champlain reports he met Dutchmen or Englishmen. Geography from his Lake Simcoe starting point suggest that he did not see the Susquehanna's on the Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia region. The Spanish had a few outposts scattered in New England. One of these forts on the Pennsylvania and New York border was near the Allegheny Mountains and built by 1588. It is not so very distant from Dutch trapper's Albany, by 1634. Elements of the "Tobacco People" are reported south of Lake Erie and Lake Ontario. It is conjectural to say how far south they extended during this time frame. They are reported to be similar to the Neutrals whom the Jesuits reported as taken in refugees. The "Anacostan Naturalls" are mentioned several times by the Baltimores as coming to trade.
Captain Henry Fleet arrived on the Potomac River after 1623. Later, William Claiborne, Sir John Wolstenholme, Clobery & Company and the Baltimores established a trading post at Kent Island (1631) on the upper Chesapeake Bay. They hired Fleet familiar with "Anacostia Valley Naturalls" as a guide and interpreter. Leonard Calvert’s letter to Sir Richard Lechford, dated May 30, 1634, "The nation we trade withal at this time a-year is called the Massawomeckes. This nation cometh seven, eight, and ten days journey to us—these are those from whom Kircke had formerly all his trade of beaver. Captain Smith wrote of the Susquehannock, "They can make neere 600 able and mighty men, and are pallisadoed in their Townes to defend them from the Massawomekes their mortall enimies." Captain Smith also mentions the "Canoos Makers" boating off the northwestern rivers of the upper Chesapeake Bay. These canoes were wicker framed and not that regions more common dugout nor pirogue. In his book, "History Of The Commonwealth Of Pennsylvania," (Harrisburg, 1876) state librarian of Pennsylvania, William H. Egle may have correctly figured that the Massawomeke is the tribe later known by the name of Mohawk, the later Virginian's element Canawagh mix by 1721.
Like the other mysterious protohistoric people of the region, identifying the Massawomecks is a best educated guess due to lack of solid documentation. Although, the state's universities studies also include Jesuit writings before 1650 from the Récollets (A.D.1615) and other extrapolations from the period with field science. The Powhatan called the Iroquois the Massawomeck (Sultzman). Virginia's Native Americans said of these, "People beyond the Mountains.
Baron Graffenried, in 1711 during Queen Anne's War which ended with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713), made a friendship treaty with the "Canawest" on the Potomac River about fifty miles up-stream from present Washington, D.C.. It was about this time the Haudenosaunee began organizing villages inland the Mid-Atlantic region resulting an acculturation of tribes by language and heritage. This was an attempt at segregation of subject tribes on as near as possible to the orginal or traditional tribal territorial land. For encroaching colonial settlement, this concept was politcally supported by both French and English authority with the idea of "policing" local uprisings. The Iroquois assigned Canawest, Nanticoke and Conestoga lands at "Conejoholo" on the Susquehanna River. The village of "Canoog" was several leagues canoe trip above "Fort Susquehanoag" according to a number of early maps. It was by 1742 the "Canawest" of the Iroquois' acculturation period was pronounced "Conoy" by the English colonists. Quoting Hodge, "At that time they (Conoy) numbered only about 150, and, with their associate the Nanticoke and Mahican, were dependent on the Iroquois", namely the Mohawk known as "Keepers of the Western Door", otherwise the Ohio country which includes the Upper Ohio Valley tributaries. Concerning Kanawha Valley settlers, the word "Conoy" is a derivative in the Nineteenth Century as said by some local West Virginian "acquaintances" with western Virginia "Shawnee" (Le Tort's clan), "Cherokee" and "Mohawk" mixed by then. Captain Hanson, among others of few documented, called these mixed people "Canawaghs" in the latter Eighteenth Century. "Ka(h)nawha" derives from the region's Iroquois dialects meaning "water way" or "Canoe Way" implying the metaphor, "transport way", in the local language. The grammar of the "hard H" sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia.
See also Mohawk language (Dialects)
The fort farmer's points were meant to come off embedding within and suffered not in flight to the spin. Therefore, they do not have stems nor notches of other culture's narrower notched styles. The more bulky kind and most having stem, most notched, are for atlatl saplings or spear and are often archaic or more likely mound builder's points (Adena or Hopewellian) along the river bottoms and water shed flats. The folk's atlatl was sapling of the creek bank that grows outward and soon up provides a little elbow to rest the shaft tail. These are the most basic common denominators in this element of (their) stone industry one looks for in a possible relative culture village site of the lawful scientist. Any grave is a sacred place though and by law, any grave marked or not is unlawful to disturb in West Virginia. One calls the sheriff if one stumbles onto a suspected human remains at ones private property digging for "arrow heads" which is lawful. He in turn will notify the proper people for you in this state. Both fort cultures also used a pike otherwise spear for both fort guarding and hunting larger game, but, more to walking staff. Long saplings of gigging was common up creeks. These had no stone point, but, either a bone barb or not, otherwise, having a single somewhat less half of a right angle slit that open wider when successfully accomplished in purpose. Although, small game was the staple along with Mussel, frog and creek-mouth fish (April spawning catfish), shifting between seasons waiting on warble fly to leave.
Bone industry, hooks & awls are inclusive, but, beyond stone industry scope, save smoking pipes, art, mortar and hammer and so on. The chert or flint and stone locations are generally known by local collectors to region as is the styles. The end dressing rock has the holes in them from usage and used with a bow to dress the shaft ends as if starting Boy Scout fire. Stories declare nut gather woman would steal that rock for nut cracking, but, the holes had to come first and the question is why-- shaft end dressing. The scraper with the two mysterious notches near each other is for sapling's bark removal and for shallow groove making on the fletch end for the two tail feather style arrows. These did not spin and pine pitch was used with slippery elm inner bark slivers. One tail feather was set with the quill spine into the slight groove which caused the tail feather to "V" shape a little. The other tail feather was set opposite the first. This caused a fletch of four narrow vanes that did not spin the arrow, unlike the historics. Later more narrow points were meant to spin. These use three feathers which quickly became more popular or common especially the last several decades of protohistoric West Virginia, Fur Trade Wars invasion. "Some things are better left to mystery", said the elders of some five decades ago. These three paragraphs are based on old local tellings of the elders of the Kanawhan Region descent.
Ebooks by Google:
"Handbook of American Indians North of Mexico" By Frederick Webb Hodge http://books.google.com/books?id=zEcSAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA2&lpg=PA1&ots#PPP11,M1