Definitions

Tisza

Tisza

[Hung. ti-so]
Tisza, Kálmán, 1830-1902, Hungarian premier (1875-90), of an old Calvinist family. He entered politics in the Hungarian revolution of Mar., 1848. Elected (1861) to the Hungarian parliament, he led the radical group that later opposed the Ausgleich [compromise] of 1867, which created the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. He was influential in maintaining Austro-Hungarian neutrality in the Franco-Prussian War. Having become (1875) premier of Hungary, he reversed his stand on the Ausgleich and formed the Liberal party, which dominated Hungarian politics during the following decades. His close support of the policies of Julius Andrássy, the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister, enabled Tisza to make Hungary an equal partner in the Dual Monarchy. During his 15-year premiership, Tisza rehabilitated Hungarian finances, introduced compulsory education, and strengthened the economic ties with Austria. He tried to absorb the Slavic and Romanian minorities into a Magyar culture and nation.
Tisza, Count Stephen, 1861-1918, Hungarian premier (1903-5, 1913-17); son of Kálmán Tisza. He believed in strong personal government and sought to make Hungary a forceful partner in the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. He took repressive measures against the Serbian and Romanian minorities of Hungary, seeking to block their secessionist tendencies. Tisza strongly opposed the aggressive policy of Count Berchtold, the Austro-Hungarian foreign minister at the outbreak (1914) of World War I, but at last consented to declaring war on Serbia after being assured that no Serbian territory was to be annexed. Tisza's influence waned after the death of Emperor Francis Joseph and the accession of Charles I. His ministry fell in 1917, and Tisza took a military command on the Italian front. He was assassinated at Budapest by soldiers who believed him a chief instigator of the war.
Tisza, Serbian Tisa, Rus. Tissa or Tisa, Ger. Theiss (tīs), river, c.600 mi (970 km) long, formed by two headstreams in the Carpathians, W Ukraine. It flows generally S across E Hungary, past Szolnok and Szeged, into N Serbia, where it enters the Danube River E of Novi Sad. The Körös and Mureşul rivers are its chief tributaries. There are hydroelectric facilities on the river in Hungary. The Tisza is navigable for small craft to Szolnok and is also used to float timber.
"Tisa" redirects here. For other uses, see Tisa (disambiguation) and Tisza (disambiguation).
The Tisza is one of the major rivers of Central Europe. It originates in Ukraine, with the White Tisza in the Chornohora and Black Tisza in the Gorgany range, flows partially along the Romanian border, enters Hungary at Tiszabecs, passes through Hungary, and falls into the Danube in central Vojvodina in Serbia. It forms the boundary between the regions of Bačka and Banat. The Tisza drains an area of about 157,186 km². Attila the Hun is said to have been buried under a diverted section of the river Tisza.

Names for the river in the countries it flows through are:

  • Tisa;
  • Тиса (Tysa);
  • Tisa;
  • Tisza ();
  • Тиса (Tisa).

The river was known as the Tisia in antiquity, and Latin names for it included Tissus, Tisia, Pathissus (Pliny, Naturalis historia, 4.25). In Croatian language, it is called Tisa (Tisa flows through areas with Croat minority in autonomic province Vojvodina in northern Serbia). It may be referred to as the Theiss (Theiß) in older English references, after the German name for that river.

Regulation of the Tisza

The length of the Tisza in Hungary used to be 1419 km. It flowed through the Great Hungarian Plain, which is one of the largest flat areas in central Europe. Since plains can cause a river to flow very slowly, the Tisza used to follow a path with many curves and turns, which led to many large floods in the area.

After several small-scale attempts, István Széchenyi organised the "control of the Tisza" (a Tisza szabályozása) which started on August 27, 1846 and substantially ended in 1880. The new length of the river in Hungary was 966 km, with 589 km of "dead channels" and 136 km of new riverbed.

The resultant length of the flood-protected river comprises 2,940 km (out of 4,220 km of all Hungarian protected rivers) which forms one of the largest flood protection systems in Europe; larger than the Netherlands' 1,500 km, the Po River's 1,400 km, or the Loire Valley's 480 km.

"Lake Tisza"

In the 1970s the building of the Kisköre Reservoir started with the purpose of helping to control floods as well as storing water for drought seasons. It turned out, however, that the resulting Lake Tisza became one of the most popular tourist destinations in Hungary, since it had similar features to Lake Balaton at drastically cheaper prices and it was not crowded.

Navigation

The Tisza is navigable over much of its course. The river opened up for international navigation only recently; before, Hungary distinguished "national rivers" and "international rivers", indicating whether non-Hungarian vessels were allowed or not. After Hungary joined the European Union, this distinction was lifted and vessels were allowed on the Tisza.

Conditions of navigation differ with the circumstances: when the river is in flood, it is often unnavigable, just as it is at times of extreme drought. (Source: NoorderSoft Waterway Database)

Tributaries and sub-tributaries

References

  • Administraţia Naţională Apelor Române - Cadastrul Apelor - Bucureşti
  • Institutul de Meteorologie şi Hidrologie - Rîurile României - Bucureşti 1971

External links

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