|State of matter||Solid|
|Melting point||1800-2200 K (2800-3500 °F)|
|Density||7120-7160 kg/m3 at 293 K|
|Color (in powder form)||Pale yellow to greenish yellow, depending on SnO2 concentration|
|Values vary with composition.|
|SI units & STP are used except where noted.|
Indium tin oxide's main feature is the combination of electrical conductivity and optical transparency. However, a compromise has to be reached during film deposition, as high concentration of charge carriers will increase the material's conductivity, but decrease its transparency.
ITO is also used for various optical coatings, most notably infrared-reflecting coatings (hot mirrors) for architectural, automotive, and sodium vapor lamp glasses. Other uses include gas sensors, antireflection coatings, electrowetting on dielectrics, and Bragg reflectors for VCSEL lasers.
Reportedly, ITO is used as sensor coating in the Canon 400D/XTi and Sony Alpha DSLR-A100.
Due to high cost and limited supply of indium, the fragility and lack of flexibility of ITO layers, and the costly layer deposition requiring vacuum, alternatives are being sought. Carbon nanotube conductive coatings are a prospective replacement. These coatings are being developed by Canatu, Eikos and Unidym as a lower cost, more mechanically robust alternative to ITO. PEDOT and are manufactured by AGFA and H.C. Starck. PEDOT:PSS layers are in use (though they degrade when exposed to ultraviolet radiation and have other disadvantages). Other alternatives are eg. aluminium-doped zinc oxide. Cambrios, founded in 2002 by Drs. Angela Belcher of MIT and Evelyn Hu, has a wet-processable transparent conductive film alternative for ITO.