Tigecycline (INN) is an glycylcycline antibiotic developed and marketed by Wyeth under the brand name Tygacil. It was given a U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) fast-track approval and was approved on June 17, 2005. It was developed in response to the growing prevalence of antibiotic resistance in bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus.
This antibiotic is the first clinically-available drug in a new class of antibiotics called the glycylcyclines
. It is structurally similar to the tetracyclines
in that it contains a central four-ring carbocyclic skeleton and is actually a derivative
. Tigecycline has a substitution at the D-9 position which is believed to confer broad spectrum activity. The drug inhibits the bacterial 30S ribosome
and is bacteriostatic
Tigecycline is active against many Gram-positive
bacteria and anaerobes – including activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus
(MRSA) and multi-drug resistant strains of Acinetobacter baumannii
. It has no activity against Pseudomonas
spp. or Proteus
spp. The drug is licenced for the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections as well as intra-abdominal infections.
Tigecycline is given by slow intravenous infusion (30 to 60 minutes). A single dose of 100 milligram
is given first, followed by 50 mg every twelve hours after that. Patients with impaired liver function need to be given a lower dose. No adjustment is needed for patients with impaired kidney function. It is not licensed for use in children. There is no oral form available.
The most common side effects of tigecycline are diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Nausea and vomiting is mild or moderate and usually occurs during the first two days of therapy. Other side effects include pain at the injection site, swelling and irritation; increased or decreased heart rate and infections. As tigecycline is similar to the tetracycline antibiotics,they have similar side effects such as increased sensitivity to sunlight. Also avoid use in children and pregnancy, due to its affects on teeth and bone. As with other antibiotics, overgrowth of organisms that are not susceptible to tigecycline can occur.
- Rose W, Rybak M (2006). "Tigecycline: first of a new class of antimicrobial agents.". Pharmacotherapy 26 (8): 1099–110.
- Kasbekar N (2006). "Tigecycline: a new glycylcycline antimicrobial agent.". Am J Health Syst Pharm 63 (13): 1235–43.