Thurgood Marshall

Thurgood Marshall

[mahr-shuhl]
Marshall, Thurgood, 1908-93, U.S. lawyer and Associate Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court (1967-91), b. Baltimore. He received his law degree from Howard Univ. in 1933. In 1936 he joined the legal staff of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. As its chief counsel (1938-61), he argued more than 30 cases before the U.S. Supreme Court, successfully challenging racial segregation, most notably in higher education. His presentation of the argument against the "separate but equal" doctrine achieved its greatest impact with the landmark decision handed down in Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka (1954). His appointment to the U.S. Court of Appeals in 1961 was opposed by some Southern senators and was not confirmed until 1962. President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed him to the Supreme Court two years later; he was the first black to sit on the high court, where he consistently supported the position taken by those challenging discrimination based on race or sex, opposed the death penalty, and supported the rights of criminal defendants. His support for affirmative action led to his strong dissent in Regents of the University of California v. Bakke (1978). As appointments by Presidents Nixon and Reagan changed the outlook of the Court, Marshall found himself increasingly in the minority; in retirement he was outspoken in his criticism of the court.

See biography by J. Williams (1998); studies by R. W. Bland (1973) and H. Ball (1999); R. Kluger, Simple Justice (1976).

(born July 2, 1908, Baltimore, Md., U.S.—died Jan. 24, 1993, Bethesda, Md.) U.S. jurist and civil-rights advocate. He received his law degree from Howard University in 1933. From 1936 he worked for the NAACP, becoming its chief counsel in 1940. He won 29 of the 32 cases he argued before the Supreme Court of the United States, including the landmark Brown v. Board of Education (1954) and others that established equal protection for African Americans in housing, voting, employment, and education. He served as U.S. solicitor general (1965–67) before being appointed in 1967 to the Supreme Court by Pres. Lyndon B. Johnson, becoming the first African American Supreme Court justice. Marshall was a steadfast liberal during his tenure on the Court, and he maintained his previous views concerning the need for equitable and just treatment of the nation's minorities by the state and federal governments. He retired in 1991.

Learn more about Marshall, Thurgood with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport serves the Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area (U.S.). It is commonly called BWI or BWI Airport, its IATA Airport Code, an initialism for "Baltimore/Washington International," or as BWI-Marshall. The airport is located in Linthicum, Maryland, about 10 miles (16 km) south of Baltimore and 30 miles (48 km) north of Washington, D.C. It is a focus city for both Southwest Airlines and AirTran Airways.

A record 21.04 million passengers passed through BWI in 2007, representing a 1.7% increase in annual traffic. In 2006, traffic grew by 4.8%, to 20.7 million people.

History

Planning for a new airport on 3,200 acres (13 km²) to serve the Baltimore/Washington area began just after the end of World War II, and ground was broken in 1947. Located near Friendship Church in Anne Arundel County, Maryland, Friendship International Airport was dedicated on June 24, 1950, by President Harry Truman. Regular commercial service started the following month. Jet service started in 1957 when the first Boeing 707s were placed in service.

The State of Maryland, through the Maryland Department of Transportation (MDOT), purchased Friendship International Airport from the City of Baltimore for $36 million in 1972. Under MDOT, the Maryland State Aviation Administration took over airfield operations and grew from three employees to more than 200. Plans to upgrade, improve, and modernize all Maryland airport facilities were announced almost immediately by the Secretary of Transportation, Harry Hughes. The airport was renamed Baltimore/Washington International Airport in 1973. However, the IATA code remained as "BAL" because "BWI" was already used by another airport until 1982 when it was changed to "BWI." The new name was part of an effort to grab a portion of the Washington-area travel market.

The first phase of BWI modernization was completed in 1974 at a cost of $30 million. Upgrades included improved instrument landing capabilities and runway systems, and construction of three new air cargo terminals, expanding the airport's freight capacity to 2.53 acres.

The passenger terminal renovation program was complete in 1979, the most dramatic work of the airport's modernization. The BWI terminal more than doubled in size to 14.58 acres; the number of gate positions increased from 20 to 27. The total cost of project was $70 million. To continue the work, the BWI Development Council was established to support initiatives for airport development.

BWI Rail Station opened in 1980, providing a rail connection to passengers on the busy Northeast Corridor. BWI became the first airport in the U.S. to be served by a dedicated intercity rail station. In particular, the station provided relatively easy transit access to Washington, D.C., something Washington Dulles International Airport currently lacks. In the late 1990s, a new international terminal (Concourse E) was added, though Dulles continues to hold the lion's share of the region's international flights, and BWI has not attracted many long-haul international carriers. Air Jamaica and British Airways have had a presence at BWI for many years. AerLingus, Air Aruba, Air Greenland, El Al, Ghana Airways, Icelandair, KLM, Ladeco, and Mexicana previously flew to BWI. Military flights, operated by AMC, continue to have a significant presence at BWI.

For much of the 1990s, BWI was a major hub for US Airways, but that airline's financial difficulties in the wake of the dot-com bust and the September 11 attacks forced it to significantly reduce its presence at the airport. The airport has been a major haven for low-cost flights in the Baltimore/Washington Metropolitan Area since the arrival of Southwest Airlines in September 1993, and in the early 2000s Southwest significantly increased its operations there. Southwest is now BWI's largest carrier, accounting for about 52.5% of passengers in 2007. The other major airlines with a significant presence at the airport are AirTran (11.82%), Delta Air Lines (6.56%), United Airlines (6.44%), and US Airways (6.40%).

To accommodate Southwest's extensive presence at the airport, in 2005 Concourses A and B were expanded, renovated, and integrated with one another to house all of that airline's operations there. This new facility opened on May 22, 2005. On October 1 of that year, the airport was renamed again, to Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, to honor the former US Supreme Court justice, who grew up in Baltimore. The more recent renaming has not resulted in a change to the IATA and ICAO locater codes.

The airport has been a backdrop in numerous films, including The Silence of the Lambs, Goldfinger, Broadcast News, and Twelve Monkeys.

Terminals and destinations

Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport has five concourses, though Concourses A and B were essentially merged into a single concourse in a recent renovation.

Concourses A/B

  • Southwest Airlines (Albany, Albuquerque, Austin, Birmingham (AL), Buffalo, Chicago-Midway, Cleveland, Columbus (OH), Denver, Detroit, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Hartford, Houston-Hobby, Indianapolis, Jackson, Jacksonville, Kansas City, Las Vegas, Little Rock, Long Island/Islip, Louisville, Manchester (NH), Nashville, New Orleans, Norfolk, Oklahoma City, Orlando, Phoenix, Pittsburgh, Providence, Raleigh/Durham, St. Louis, Salt Lake City, San Antonio, San Diego, Tampa, West Palm Beach)

Concourse C

Concourse D

Concourse E

Concourse E is officially entitled the Governor William Donald Schaefer International Terminal.

The Air Mobility Command also has a post in Concourse E flying active service troops out to worldwide destinations.

Airline lounges

  • United Airlines operates a Red Carpet Club in Concourse D. [to close by October 10, 2008]
  • British Airways operates a British Airways Chesapeake Club Lounge in Concourse E, near entrance to the concourse. This facility, while operated by British Airways, is a common-use facility available to passengers of all international concourse airlines.
  • USO operates a lounge on the lower level of the Terminal between Concourses D and E for United States Military personnel and their families.

Operations

For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2007, the airport had 296,268 aircraft operations, an average of 811 per day: 89% air carrier, 10% general aviation, and 1% for air taxi and military operations. There are only 96 aircraft based at this airport: 66% single engine, 21% multi-engine, and 13% jets.

Planes arriving at BWI can often be seen from West River, Maryland, before they land.

Car rental

BWI has a consolidated rental car facility located ten minutes from the terminal. A complimentary shuttle carries rental car customers between the facility and the arrivals area of the airport terminal. The airport is served by eight rental car companies.

Access

Rail

BWI Rail Station is located about a mile from the airport terminal; a free shuttle bus brings passengers to and from the train station and airport terminal. The station is served by Amtrak Northeast Corridor trains and, on weekdays, by the MARC Penn Line. Travel time by train is about ten minutes to Baltimore's Penn Station and thirty-five minutes to Union Station in Washington, D.C. MARC tickets are $4 to Baltimore and $6 to Washington; Amtrak tickets are $17-$22 to Baltimore and $17-$36 to Washington. Trains depart at least once an hour seven days a week, with departure times during rush hours and business hours being significantly more frequent.

The Maryland Transit Administration's Light Rail line has a stop just outside the entrance to the airport's International Terminal. Passengers can take the Light Rail to a variety of destinations in Anne Arundel County, Baltimore City, and Baltimore County, and can transfer to the Metro Subway in Baltimore, or to either of MARC's Baltimore terminals. A one-way ticket costs $1.60; an all-day pass, which provides access to bus, light rail, and Metro Subway travel throughout greater Baltimore, costs $3.50. A ride downtown takes approximately 30 minutes. Trains run every 20 minutes during peak hours, and 30 minutes all other times.

Buses

Shuttle buses provide service between BWI and the Washington Metrorail/MARC rail station at Greenbelt, Maryland. This bus is the Metrobus B30 route, which runs approximately every 40 minutes 6am-10pm weekdays and 9am-10pm on weekends, priced at $3.10 one-way payable by cash or $3.00 if using a SmarTrip card.

Highway

BWI is located at the southeast terminus of Interstate 195, a spur route providing connections to the Baltimore-Washington Parkway and Interstate 95.

See also

References

External links

Search another word or see Thurgood Marshallon Dictionary | Thesaurus |Spanish
Copyright © 2014 Dictionary.com, LLC. All rights reserved.
  • Please Login or Sign Up to use the Recent Searches feature
FAVORITES
RECENT

;