Various religions forbid the consumption of certain types of food. For example, Judaism prescribes a strict set of rules, called Kashrut, regarding what may and may not be eaten. In Islamic practice, the laws of Haram and Halal dictate which foods may not be eaten. The meat of swine, blood and intoxicants are forbidden by the Quran. Hindus, and Jains often follow religious directives to observe vegetarianism and avoid eating meat. Hinduism has no specific proscriptions against eating meat, so some Hindus do eat meat. However, many other Hindus apply the concept of "ahimsa" (non-violence) to their diet, so they advocate and practice forms of vegetarianism. Due to philosophical differences and dietary needs among many modern Indian Hindus, all meat is considered a taboo except mutton, goat, chicken and fish.
Australian Aborigines traditionally had personal totems. While religious practices varied from group to group, it was common that the eating of the totemic animal was considered taboo, either by the entire clan, or the individual with the personal totem.
Manchus have a prohibition against the eating of dog meat, which is sometimes consumed by the Manchus' neighboring Northeastern Asian peoples. The Manchus also avoid the wearing of hats made of dog's fur. Although dog meat is eaten in many countries around the world, it is often associated with Korea. It is a misperception that dog meat is a common cuisine in Korea. Although it is true that dog meat is occasionally eaten, it is a dish which is rarely consumed by the general public. The average Korean does not eat dog and the younger generations, in particular, frown upon the practice. In Korea, dog meat (prepared in a soup) is almost exclusively eaten by men for what is believed to be the health benefits (e.g., stamina).
Aside from overt taboos there are unconscious cultural taboos against the consumption of some animals. For example, even though there is no law against eating dog meat in the United States and Europe, it is widely considered unacceptable. In Southeast Asia, most countries excluding Vietnam rarely consume dog meat either because of Islamic or Buddhist values or animal rights as in the Philippines. Similarly, horse meat is rarely eaten in the US and UK. However, horse meat is commonly consumed in numerous other countries where it is considered a delicacy, including Kazakhstan, Russia, Japan, and France.
Within a given society, some meats will be considered taboo simply because they are outside the range of the generally accepted definition of a foodstuff, not necessarily because the meat is considered repulsive in flavor, aroma, texture or appearance.
Some authorities impose cultural food taboos in the form of law. For example, even after resumption to Chinese rule, Hong Kong has not lifted its ban on supplying meat from dogs and cats, imposed in colonial times. A fairly recent addition to cultural food taboos is that of eating the meat or eggs of endangered species or animals that are otherwise protected by law or international treaty. Examples of such protected species include whales, sea turtles, and migratory birds.
The origin of food taboos is varied. In some cases, they are a result of health considerations or other practical considerations. In others, it's a result of human symbolic systems.
Both Judaism and Islam strictly forbid the consumption of amphibians such as frogs and reptiles such as crocodiles and snakes. Although it is well known that Islam doesn't forbid the eating of lizards. Nevertheless, frogs are raised commercially in certain countries and frog legs are considered a delicacy in France, Portugal, Indonesia China, Caribbean and in parts of the USA. Alligator is farmed commercially in the southern US states and is a popular meat in Cajun and Creole cooking.
The Hebrew Bible (Leviticus ) explicitly states that the eagle, vulture, and osprey are not to be eaten. A bird now commonly raised for meat in some areas, the ostrich, is explicitly banned as food in . Interestingly, bats are also included in the list of inedible "birds". Large domesticated fowl such as chickens, turkeys, and ducks are commonly eaten in many cultures, along with their wild game counterparts.
In North America, while pigeons (as doves) are a hunted game bird urban pigeons are considered unfit for consumption.
Eating swans is generally considered unacceptable in Europe and the Americas, and the swan is a protected bird in England. All mute swans in Britain belong to the sovereign, Queen Elizabeth II, a historical quirk dating from the twelfth century. Nevertheless, reports about the eating of swans are seen from time to time.
The eating of a camel is strictly prohibited by the Torah. Although the camel is a cud-chewer, the Levites still considered it "unclean". While the foot of a camel is split into two toe-like structures, it does not meet the biblical cloven hoof criterion. The meat of a camel may also have been spurned due to the camel's physiology. Most of a camel's fat is stored in its hump. This makes the rest of the body very lean, which some cultures don't value for taste.
Although there are similarities in both Islam and Judaism regarding the Kashrut and Halal foods, there are significant differences, including the consumption of camel flesh. According to the materialistic anthropologist Marvin Harris, since Arabs were nomads, camels were essential for their travels, but, in case of emergency, Muslims could not afford to starve because of the taboo.
Camel meat has been eaten for centuries. It has been recorded by ancient Greek writers as an available dish in ancient Persia at banquets, usually roasted whole. The ancient Roman emperor Heliogabalus, born and raised in Syria, enjoyed camel's heel. Camel meat is often eaten in countries such as Somalia (where it is called Hilib geyl), Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Libya, Sudan, Mauritania and other arid regions where alternative forms of protein may be limited or where camel meat has had a long cultural history. Not just the meat but also blood is a consumable item as is the case in northern Kenya where camel blood is a source of iron, vitamin D, salts and minerals (although Muslims do not drink or consume blood products). A recent report leads to some caution since cases have emerged of where eating raw camel liver has led to human plague. The camel is also considered a novelty in Australia - for example, a camel lasagne is available in Alice Springs).
Swedish astronaut Christer Fuglesang was not allowed to bring dried reindeer with him onboard a shuttle mission as it was unthinkable for the Americans so soon before Christmas. He had to go with moose instead.
The term roof-hare (roof-rabbit, German Dachhase) applies to cat meat presented as that of a hare, another pest (or pet) used as a source of meat. Subtracting the skin, feet, head and tail, hares and cats are practically identical. The only way to distinguish them is by looking at the processus hamatus of the feline scapula, which should have a processus suprahamatus. Dar gato por liebre ("to pass off a cat as a hare") is an expression common to many Spanish-speaking countries, equivalent to "to pull the wool over someone's eyes" derived from this basic scam. There is an equivalent Portuguese expression Comprar gato por lebre, meaning "to buy a cat as a hare". More specifically, in Brazil, cat meat is seen as repulsive and people often shun barbecue establishments suspected of selling cat meat. The expression churrasco de gato ("cat barbecue") is largely used in Brazil with a humorous note, especially for roadside stands that offer grilled meat on a stick (often coated with farofa), due to their poor hygiene conditions and the fact that the source of the meat is mostly unknown. Cases of passing off cat meat as lamb shish kabab in less reputable shops, are also regularly reported in Egypt. "Kitten cakes" and "buy three shawarma - assemble a kitten" are common Russian urban jokes about the suspect origin of food from street vendors' stalls.
Many Hindus, particularly Brahmins, are vegetarians, abstaining from eating any meat at all, including fish (same for Brahmins in Bengal and Kashmiri Pandits who consume meat and fish). Most Hindus, except some semi-tribals and Dalits in a few pockets of India, abstain from the consumption of beef, as the cow holds a sacred place in Hindu society. However, the taboo does not extend to dairy products, since the preparation of dairy products does not involve slaughtering the animal.
According to the scriptures of early Hinduism, it is a grave sin to kill a cow, to take part in its slaughter, or to eat its flesh. The injunctions against eating beef arises within the Vedas such as:
Atharvaveda I.16.4 "If thou slayest our cow, our horse or our domestic, we pierce thee with the lead, so that thou shalt not slay our heroes."
Atharva Veda III.30.1 You should impart love to each other as the non-killable cow does for its calf.
RgVeda VIII.101.15 Cow is pure, do not kill it.
Yajur Veda XIII.49 Do not kill the cow.
RgVeda VI.28.3 states Enemy may not use any “astra” i.e. weapon on cows
RgVeda VI.28.4 states Nobody should take them to butcher house to kill them
Mahabharata- Shantiparva 262.47 Cow is called ‘aghanya’ and thus non-killable. It is assumed that the largely pastoral Vedic people and subsequent generations of Hindus throughout the centuries relied so heavily on the cow for all sorts of dairy products, notably ghee, the tilling of fields, and fuel or fertiliser that its status as a willing "caretaker" of humanity grew to identifying it as an almost maternal figure. The economic origins of the cow-eating taboo can be observed from etymology: The Sanskrit word for cattle is pashu, which is cognate with the Latin word pecu, from which derives words pertaining to money in Latin (and into English) : pecunia, impecunious.
Traditionally people from lower castes, like Dalits, ate beef and carabeef (buffalo). In modern times, beef-eating has gained some acceptance in various parts of India, despite the opposition of most Hindus. By Indian law, the slaughter of cattle is banned in almost all Indian states except the states of Kerala and Arunachal Pradesh. Slaughter of cows is an extremely emotional and provocative issue for both mainstream Hindus and the followers of Hindutva. However, in modern times, beef is eaten in Indian cities by a small section of hindus.
Some ethnic Chinese may also refrain from eating cow meat, because many of them feel that it is wrong to eat an animal that was so useful in agriculture. Some Chinese Buddhists discourage the consumption of beef although it is not considered taboo. A similar taboo can be seen among Sinhalese Buddhists who consider it to be ungrateful to kill the animal that provides milk and also because it is a beast of burden providing livelihood to many Sinhalese people.
Almost all types of non-piscine seafood, such as shellfish, lobster, shrimp or crawfish, are forbidden by Judaism because such animals live in water but do not have both fins and scales (Leviticus 11:10-12).
As a general rule, all seafood are permissible in Sunni Islam. In Shi'a Islam, only scaled fish and shrimp are allowed.
According to the ancient Hindu scriptures (cf. Manusmriti and medicinal texts like Sushrut-Samhita), dog's meat was regarded as the most unclean (and rather poisonous) food possible—it was worthy only for the lowest of the untouchable castes — who were therefore called śvapaca (those cooking dog's meat). In Mexico during the pre-columbine era a hairless dog named xoloitzcuintle was commonly eaten. After colonization, this custom stopped.
Judaism prohibits the consumption of elephant meat as an unfit [for consumption] land animal, (similarly to the prohibition on camel meat) as does Islam.
Certain species of fish are also forbidden in Judaism such as the freshwater eel (Anguillidae) and all species of catfish. Although they live in water, they appear to have no fins or scales (except under a microscope). (See Leviticus). Sunni Muslim laws are more flexible in this and catfishes and sharks are generally seen as halal as they are special types of fish; eel is considered permitted in the majority of the Islamic schools while Shia Muslims forbid it and forbid anything that is forbidden in Judaism. A common interpretation regarding some of the Islamic prohibitions is that animals that "live in both worlds" may not be consumed. This applies to primarily aquatic animals that nest or breed on land.
The Greenland Norse, a civilization that lasted about 300 years following a colonization from Iceland, might have had a taboo against fish. Jared Diamond proposes this hypothesis based on the fact that few fish bones or other remains have been found from Greenland Norse archaeological sites, and almost no fishing equipment. It seems they sustained themselves on agriculture, cattle, pork, goats and, as centuries passed, seal meat, in a climate that rendered such sustenance next-to impossible. In contrast, their Icelandic and Norse ancestors, their Kalaallit neighbours and modern Greenlanders all consume fish in abundance.
Attitudes concerning genetically modified food like genetically modified soya, maize or rapeseed (canola) vary from accepted to taboo in the U.S. and Canada, while many Europeans have a taboo on it as they are more concerned with eating natural food sources. This is believed to be due to the various food scares in Europe during the 1980s and 1990's, such as BSE/vCJD, salmonella and dioxin poisoning. In the UK, only 2% of Britons are said to be "happy to eat GM foods", and more than half of Britons are against genetically modified foods being available to the public, according to a 2003 study.
In Europe, regulations state that all food and animal feed containing more than 0.5 percent GM ingredients are required to have strict labelling and traceability, and many supermarkets proudly boast the fact that they don't sell GM foods.
Guinea pigs, or cuy are a significant part of the diet in Peru, mostly in the Andes Mountains highlands. However, cuyes can be found on the menu of most restaurants in Lima and other cities in Peru. Today guinea pig meat is exported to the United States and European nations. ;
In 2004, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation took legal action to stop vendors serving cuy at an Ecuadorian festival in Flushing Meadows Park. New York State allows for the consumption of guinea pigs, but New York City prohibits it. Accusations of cultural persecution have since been leveled.
Eating horse is fairly common in parts of continental Europe, and is considered a delicacy in Japan, where it is also eaten raw as a type of sashimi. Horse meat was also very popular in Malta until a few years ago, and a few horse meat shops still exist and a few restaurants serve it for locals and tourists. Horse meat was sold in the US during WW II, since beef was expensive, rationed and destined for the troops.
The eating of horse meat is a food taboo to most people in the United Kingdom, the US, and Australia, and its supply is sometimes even illegal. Sale and consumption of horse meat is illegal in California and Illinois. In the UK, this strong taboo includes banning horsemeat from commercial pet food and DNA testing of some types of salami suspected of containing donkey meat.
Horse is not be eaten by observant Jews, since under Mosaic Law, horse meat is forbidden because the horse is not a ruminant, nor does it have cloven hooves. In Islamic thought, horses are generally considered makruh, i.e. the meat is not haram but the eating of it is disliked.
Like lobster and dog, it is forbidden in Judaism, Hinduism, and some sects of Christianity. In AD 732, year of the battle of Tours, which showed the emergent importance of cavalry, Pope Gregory III began an effort to stop the pagan practice of horse eating, calling it "abominable". Horses were far more necessary to stop the Muslim cavalry, threatening the Christian ascendant in Europe, with their own weapons. His edicts are based on the same scripture as the Jewish prohibitions and this ban remained unlifted until the 18th century, see also Biblical law in Christianity. The people of Iceland allegedly expressed reluctance to embrace Christianity for some time largely over the issue of giving up horse meat.
Very few customarily eat the placenta after the newborn's birth, but those who advocate placentophagy in humans, mostly in modern America and Europe, Hawaii and the Pacific Islands believe that eating the placenta prevents postpartum depression and other pregnancy complications. A variety of recipes are known to exist for preparing placenta for eating. A placenta develops from the same sperm and egg cell that form the fetus, and contains cells that are genetically equivalent to those of the newborn child.
Western taboos against insects as a food source generally do not apply to honey (concentrated nectar which has been regurgitated by bees). For example, honey is considered kosher even though honeybees are not, an apparent exception to the normal rule that products of an unclean animal are also unclean. This topic is covered in the Talmud and is explained to be permissible on the grounds that the bee does not make the honey, the flower does, and it is only stored in bees.
Many vegans avoid honey as they would any other animal product. Hindi vegetarianism also proscribes honey.
Islamic and Judaic law forbids any portion that is cut from a live animal. Even in cultures that do not prescribe ritual methods of livestock slaughter, the consumption of animals that are still alive is often seen as barbaric. Notable exceptions are ikizukuri and fresh oyster. These forms of sashimi have been banned in some countries.
Another notable exception is shrimp. In Shanghai, China, and surrounding areas, live shrimp is a common dish served both in homes and restaurants. The shrimp are usually served in a bowl of alcohol, which makes the shrimp sluggish and complacent, see also Drunken shrimp. Local belief is that live shrimp are "healthier" than those served "already dead" or cooked, see also Raw foodism.
Offal is the internal organs of butchered animals, and may refer to parts of the carcass such as the head and feet ("trotters") in addition to organ meats such as sweetbreads and kidney. Offal is a traditional part of many European and Asian cuisines, including such dishes as the well-known steak and kidney pie in the United Kingdom.
In countries such as Australia, Canada and the United States, on the other hand, many people are squeamish about eating offal. In these countries, organ meats that are considered edible in other cultures are more often regarded as fit only for processing into pet food under the euphemism "meat by-products". Except for liver (chicken, beef, or pork), and intestines used as natural sausage casings, organ meats consumed in the U.S. tend to be regional or ethnic specialties; for example, tripe as menudo or mondongo among Latinos, chitterlings in the southern states, scrapple in the Mid-Atlantic region, and beef testicles called Rocky Mountain oysters or "prairie oysters" in the west.
In some regions, such as the EU, brains and other organs which can transmit bovine spongiform encephalopathy ("mad cow disease") and similar diseases have now been banned from the foodchain as specified risk materials.
In the 19th century some people attributed the pig taboo in the Middle East to the danger of the parasite trichina. This theory still circulates outside scientific circles, but is now rejected by most anthropologists.
Marvin Harris posited that pigs are not suited for being kept in the Middle East on an ecological and socio-economical level; for example, pigs are not suited to living in arid climates and thus require far more water than other animals to keep them cool, and instead of grazing they compete with humans for foods such as grains. As such, raising pigs was seen as a wasteful and decadent practice.
A common explanation to the fact that pigs are widely considered unclean in the Middle East is that they are omnivorous, not discerning between meat or vegetation in their natural dietary habits. The willingness to consume meat sets them apart from most other domesticated animals which are commonly eaten (cows, horses, goats, etc.) who would naturally eat only plants.
There is also a controversial theory that there might have been a Scottish pork taboo many centuries ago.
The Vietnamese bred pot bellied pigs for meat and lard however in the United States they are kept as pets and there is a stigma on eating them.
The book of Leviticus in the Bible classifies the rabbit as unclean because it does not have a split hoof, even though it does chew and reingest partially digested material (often loosely translated "chew the cud" in English). Further possibilities against the consumption of rabbit may also include the phenomenon known as Rabbit Starvation, a form of acute malnutrition caused by excess consumption of any lean meat (specifically rabbit) coupled with a lack of other sources of nutrients.
In Ghana, Thryonomys swinderianus locally referred to as "Akrantie", "Grasscutter" and (incorrectly) as "Bush rat" is a common food item. The proper common name for this rodent is "Greater Cane Rat", though actually it is not a rat at all and is is a close relative of porcupines and guinea pigs that inhabit Africa, south of the Saharan Desert. In 2003, the U.S. barred the import of this and other rodents from Africa because an outbreak at least nine human cases of monkeypox , an illness never before been seen in the Western Hemisphere.
Historically, rats and mice have also been eaten in the West during times of shortage or emergency, such as during the Battle of Vicksburg and the Siege of Paris. Dormice were also domesticated and raised for food in Ancient Rome. In some Asian countries, mice are eaten, and go by the name of vole. In France, rats bred in the wine stores of Gironde were cooked with the fire of broken wine barrels and eaten, dubbed as cooper's entrecôte. In some communities the muskrat (which is not a rat at all) is hunted for its meat (and fur) (e.g. some parts of Flanders); see also under "Fish" for consumption of beaver tails. See also Never Cry Wolf.
Snails have been eaten for thousands of years, beginning in the Pleistocene. They are especially abundant in Capsian sites in North Africa but are also found throughout the Mediterranean region in archaeological sites dating between 12 000 and 6000 years ago. They are also seen a notable delicacy in China and in several Asian countries along with France and other Mediterranean countries. However, in Britain, Ireland, and America, eating them may be seen as disgusting. Some English-speaking commentators have used the French word for snails, escargot, as an alternative word for snails, particularly snails for consumption. As they are mollusks, snails are neither kosher nor halal.
Although virtually all vegetables are allowed in Islam, individual rulers and religious leaders occasionally attempted to forbid certain vegetables. Most notably, Al-Hākim of Egypt forbidding molokheya the national dish, due to its being a favorite of historical sectarian rivals; however, Al-Hakim was eccentric if not deranged.
In Yazidism, the eating of lettuce and butter beans is taboo. The Muslim religious teacher and scholar, Falah Hassan Juma, links the sect's belief of evil found in lettuce to its long history of persecution by Muslims and Christians. The Caliphs of the Ottoman Empire carried out massacres against the Yazidis in the 18th and 19th centuries, with the faithful slain in the lettuce fields then dotting northeastern Iraq. Another historical theory claims one ruthless potentate who controlled the city of Mosul in the 13th century ordered an early Yazidi saint executed. The enthusiastic crowd then pelted the corpse with heads of lettuce.
The followers of Pythagoras were vegetarians (in fact "Pythagorean" at one time came to mean "vegetarian"), however their creed prohibited the eating of beans. The reason is unclear: perhaps the flatulence they cause, perhaps as protection from potential favism, but most likely for magico-religious reasons.
Vegetables like broccoli, while not taboo, may be avoided by observant Jews and other religions due to the possibility of insects hiding within the numerous crevices.
Although it might not be a taboo in a strictest sense, older Germans might not eat swede (Swedish turnip, rutabaga), as they see it as a "famine food", not for general consumption. This taboo existed from the 1916-17 famine (Steckrübenwinter) when Germany, already drained by World War I's endless Western Front, had one of the worst winters in memory, where often the only food available was swedes. This led a distaste to the vegetable which still continues today with the older generations having had experiences from World War II or having had a childhood with parents talking about the aforementioned famine. However, in recent years this taboo has been vanishing as Germans have re-discovered many traditional or local cooking recipes, including those including swede. One reason for this, is a trend to traditional and organic cuisine. Also for most Germans in 2008, the "Steckrübenwinter" famine from 1916-17 is history and has no more relevance on today's choice of food and dish.
Over the last couple of decades, the eating of whale has become increasingly taboo. The International Whaling Commission passed a moratorium on commercial whaling on July 23, 1982 that came into force for the 1985-86 season.
Norway resumed commercial whaling of minke whales in 1993 and it is still a popular meat, especially on Norway's western coast. Once considered an inexpensive substitute for beef, whale meat is now a highly priced delicacy. Iceland resumed commercial whaling in 2006. Japan's whaling is officially done for research purposes. This is specifically sanctioned under IWC regulations that also specifically require that whale meat be fully utilized upon the completion of research. Many international scientific and environmentalist groups argue that the killing is not necessary to conduct the research. The resultant meat is widely available in supermarkets, but is not widely eaten.
The United States Marine Mammal Protection Act of 1972 prohibits, with certain exceptions, the taking of marine mammals in United States waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas, and the importation of marine mammals and marine mammal products into the U.S. Despite the general ban on whale hunting in the United States and Canada, some indigenous groups are allowed to hunt for cultural reasons.
Although blood sausage, or blood made into cake form, is quite popular in many parts of the world, it is considered repulsive in most of the United States. In Britain and some Commonwealth countries, "black pudding" or "blood pudding" is made from blood and some filler grains and spices, often oatmeal. Blood sausage is also popular in Finland (mustamakkara) and some Baltic nations e.g. Poland (kaszanka), Latvia and Estonia, as well as in Germany (Blutwurst), Austria (Blunzen), Hungary (véres hurka), Spain (Morcilla), Catalonia (Botifarra), México (Moronga) Slovenia (Krvavica), Peru (Relleno), Puerto Rico (Morcilla) and France (Boudin). In Portugal, a traditional dish known as cabidela is made by cooking chicken or rabbit in its own blood, sometimes diluted with vinegar. In China, Thailand and Vietnam coagulated chicken, duck, goose or pig blood, known in Chinese as "blood tofu" (血豆腐 xuě dòufǔ) is used in soups, such as the classic Thai dish Tom Lued Moo (Pork Blood Soup). In the Philippines, a popular dish called dinuguan is made from pig's blood and seasoned with chili and is traditionally eaten with rice cakes. In Sweden, the blood soup svartsoppa is traditionally eaten on certain holidays. A type of black pudding, blodpudding, is often eaten with lingonberry jam. Polish cuisine has a version czernina, which is enjoyed by many adherents in certain regions. In Laos, and sometimes Thailand (especially the Northeast), a raw version of laap, a meat salad, is made with minced raw meat, seasoned in spices, and covered with blood. In the western region of Santander Colombia a dish called pepitoria is made from rice cooked in goat blood. As noted above, some people in China and Vietnam consider certain types of snake blood to be an aphrodisiac, and drink it with rice wine. Mexicans from certain regions eat goat's stomach stuffed with pork blood and vegetables as a delicacy.
Followers of Judaism, Islam and the Iglesia ni Cristo are forbidden to drink blood or eat food made from blood. In Judaism all mammal and bird meat (not fish) is salted to remove the blood. Jews follow the teaching in Leviticus , that since "the life of the animal is in the blood", no person may eat (or drink) the blood. However, they have no rules regarding blood transfusions since the blood is not consumed and because a transfusion is a medical procedure (Jews may break kosher laws, and Muslims may break harams, if doing so will save life).
According to the Bible blood is only to be used for special/sacred purposes in connection with worship [Exodus chapters , , ; ; ]. In the first century, Christians, both former Jews (the Jewish Christians), and new Gentile converts, were in dispute as to which particular features of Mosaic law were to be retained and upheld by them. The apostles decided that, among other things, it was necessary to abstain from consuming blood. : "For it seemed good to the Holy Ghost, and to us, to lay upon you no greater burden than these necessary things; That ye abstain from meats offered to idols, and from blood, and from things strangled, and from fornication: from which if ye keep yourselves, ye shall do well, Fare ye well." (King James Version) These New Testament verses repeated certain elements of the Jewish law, and included the prohibition regarding blood, thus making it also binding upon the Early Christian church. See also Council of Jerusalem and Noahide Law.
Originally, coffee was considered taboo among Roman Catholics as it was considered a Muslim drink until it was deemed acceptable by Pope Clement VIII. Supposedly, Pope Clement tried coffee and liked it so much that he was quoted as saying "This devil's drink is so good... we should cheat the devil by baptizing it." Whether this story is true is unknown.