With a length of 70 cm (2 ft 4 in), the gazelle-like Thoatherium was the smallest representative of the order Litopterna. Judging from its long legs, it was a fast runner. Thoatherium had remarkably reduced toes; only one horse-like hoof remained. Thoatherium even lacked splint bones, which are remnants of the second and fourth toe found in modern horses. Judging from its teeth, Thoatherium fed on leaves.