Theridion

Theridion

The spider genus Theridion, after which the family Theridiidae is named, consists of almost 600 described species that occur all around the world.

Notable species are the Hawaiian happyface spider (T. grallator), and Theridion nigroannulatum which is one of the very few species of spiders which live in social groups and not merely aggregate by coincidence. They live in large colonies, lying in wait for passing prey purportedly concealed under the edge of a leaf or stick with threads trailing down beneath them. If an insect intrudes, interjecting itself into the web, the spiders respond en masse, overwhelming it as a team. They even take turns helping pull large victims back to their lair.

Theridion braueri Simon, 1898 probably belongs into a different genus; however, Robertia the new name proposed by Saaristo (2006) is preoccupied.

Species

  • T. linaresense Levi, 1963 — Chile
  • T. linzhiense Hu, 2001 — China
  • T. llano Levi, 1957 — USA
  • T. lomirae Roewer, 1938 — New Guinea
  • T. longicrure Marples, 1956 — New Zealand
  • T. longihirsutum Strand, 1907 — China
  • T. longipalpum Zhu, 1998 — China, Korea
  • T. longipedatum Roewer, 1942 — Colombia
  • T. ludekingi Thorell, 1890 — Java
  • T. ludius Simon, 1880 — Malaysia to Australia, New Caledonia
  • T. lumabani Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
  • T. luteitarse Schmidt & Krause, 1995 — Cape Verde Islands
  • T. macei Simon, 1895 — Congo
  • T. machu Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. macropora Tang, Yin & Peng, 2006 — China
  • T. macuchi Levi, 1963 — Ecuador
  • T. maculiferum Roewer, 1942 — Zanzibar
  • T. magdalenense Müller & Heimer, 1990 — Colombia
  • T. maindroni Simon, 1905 — India
  • T. manjithar Tikader, 1970 — India
  • T. manonoense Marples, 1955 — Samoa
  • T. maranum Levi, 1963 — Venezuela
  • T. maron Levi, 1963 — Paraguay
  • T. martini Levi, 1959 — Mexico
  • T. mataafa Marples, 1955 — Samoa
  • T. mauense Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. mauiense Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • T. mehlum Roberts, 1983 — Aldabra
  • T. melanoplax Schmidt & Krause, 1996 — Canary Islands
  • T. melanoprorum Thorell, 1895 — Myanmar
    • T. melanoprorum orientale Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. melanosternon Mello-Leitão, 1947 — Brazil
  • T. melanostictum O. P.-Cambridge, 1876 — Mediterranean, Aldabra, Seychelles, China, Japan, USA, Hispaniola
  • T. melanurum Hahn, 1831 — Holarctic, Azores
  • T. melinum Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • T. mendozae Berland, 1933 — Marquesas Islands
  • T. meneghettii Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. metabolum Chamberlin & Ivie, 1936 — Panama
  • T. metator Simon, 1907 — Guinea-Bissau
  • T. michelbacheri Levi, 1957 — USA
  • T. micheneri Levi, 1963 — Panama
  • T. minutissimum Keyserling, 1884 — Panama, Peru
  • T. minutulum Thorell, 1895 — Myanmar
  • T. miserum Thorell, 1898 — Myanmar
  • T. modestum (Simon, 1894) — Sri Lanka
  • T. molliculum Thorell, 1899 — Cameroon
  • T. mollissimum L. Koch, 1872 — Australia, Samoa
  • T. montanum Emerton, 1882 — USA, Canada, Alaska, Norway, Finland, Russia
  • T. monzonense Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. mortuale Simon, 1908 — Western Australia
  • T. morulum O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 — USA, Mexico
  • T. murarium Emerton, 1882 — North America
  • T. musivivoides Schmidt & Krause, 1995 — Cape Verde Islands
  • T. musivivum Schmidt, 1956 — Canary Islands
  • T. musivum Simon, 1873 — Mediterranean
  • T. myersi Levi, 1957 — USA, Mexico, Jamaica
  • T. mystaceum L. Koch, 1870 — Palearctic
  • T. mysteriosum Schmidt, 1971 — Ecuador
  • T. nadleri Levi, 1959 — Trinidad
  • T. nagorum Roberts, 1983 — Aldabra
  • T. nasinotum Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. nasutum Wunderlich, 1995 — Sardinia
  • T. necijaense Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
  • T. negebense Levy & Amitai, 1982 — Israel
  • T. neomexicanum Banks, 1901 — USA, Canada
  • T. neshamini Levi, 1957 — USA
  • T. nesticum Levi, 1963 — Trinidad
  • T. nigriceps Keyserling, 1891 — Brazil
  • T. nigroannulatum Keyserling, 1884 — Ecuador, Peru
  • T. nigroplagiatum Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. nigropunctatum Lucas, 1846 — Mediterranean
  • T. nigropunctulatum Thorell, 1898 — Myanmar
  • T. nigrosacculatum Tullgren, 1910 — Tanzania
  • T. nigrovariegatum Simon, 1873 — Palearctic
  • T. nilgherinum Simon, 1905 — India
  • T. niphocosmum Rainbow, 1916 — Queensland
  • T. niveopunctatum Thorell, 1898 — Myanmar
  • T. niveum O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 — Mexico
  • T. nivosum Rainbow, 1916 — Queensland
  • T. nodiferum Simon, 1895 — Sri Lanka
  • T. nojimai Yoshida, 1999 — Japan
  • T. nudum Levi, 1959 — Mexico, Panama
  • T. oatesi Thorell, 1895 — Myanmar
  • T. obscuratum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. ochreolum Levy & Amitai, 1982 — Israel
  • T. octoferum Strand, 1909 — South Africa
  • T. odoratum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. ohlerti Thorell, 1870 — Holarctic
    • T. ohlerti lundbecki Sørensen, 1898 — Greenland
  • T. olaup Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. omiltemi Levi, 1959 — Mexico, Guatemala
  • T. onticolum Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. opolon Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. opuntia Levi, 1963 — Mexico
  • T. orgea (Levi, 1967) — Brazil
  • T. orlando (Archer, 1950) — USA
  • T. osprum Levi, 1963 — Venezuela
  • T. oswaldocruzi Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. otsospotum Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
  • T. palanum Roberts, 1983 — Aldabra
  • T. palgongense Paik, 1996 — Korea
  • T. pallidulum Roewer, 1942 — East Africa
  • T. palmgreni Marusik & Tsellarius, 1986 — Finland, Poland, Estonia, Russia
  • T. pandani Simon, 1895 — Cambodia
  • T. panganii Caporiacco, 1947 — Tanzania
  • T. paraense Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. parvulum Blackwall, 1870 — Sicily
  • T. parvum Keyserling, 1884 — Peru
  • T. patrizii Caporiacco, 1933 — Libya
  • T. pelaezi Levi, 1963 — Mexico
  • T. pennsylvanicum Emerton, 1913 — USA, Canada
  • T. perkinsi Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • T. pernambucum Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. perpusillum Simon, 1885 — Malaysia
  • T. petraeum L. Koch, 1872 — Holarctic
  • T. petrunkevitchi Berland, 1920 — East Africa
  • T. phaeostomum Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. pictipes Keyserling, 1884 — USA
  • T. pictum (Walckenaer, 1802) — Holarctic
  • T. pigrum Keyserling, 1886 — Brazil
  • T. pilatum Urquhart, 1893 — Tasmania
  • T. piligerum Frauenfeld, 1867 — Nicobar Islands
  • T. piliphilum Strand, 1907 — South Africa
  • T. pinastri L. Koch, 1872 — Palearctic
  • T. pinguiculum Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. pinicola Simon, 1873 — Corsica
  • T. pires Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. piriforme Berland, 1938 — New Hebrides
  • T. plaumanni Levi, 1963 — Venezuela, Brazil
  • T. plectile Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. plumipes Hasselt, 1882 — Sumatra
  • T. pluviale Tullgren, 1910 — Tanzania
  • T. poecilum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. porphyreticum Urquhart, 1889 — New Zealand
  • T. positivum Chamberlin, 1924 — USA, West Indies to Paraguay
  • T. posticatum Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • T. postmarginatum Tullgren, 1910 — Tanzania
  • T. praeclusum Tullgren, 1910 — Tanzania
  • T. praemite Simon, 1907 — Sierra Leone
  • T. praetextum Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
    • T. praetextum concolor Simon, 1900 — Hawaii
  • T. prominens Blackwall, 1870 — Italy
  • T. proximum Lawrence, 1964 — South Africa
  • T. puellae Locket, 1980 — Comoro Islands
  • T. pulanense Hu, 2001 — China
  • T. pumilio Urquhart, 1886 — New Zealand
  • T. punctipes Emerton, 1924 — USA, Mexico
  • T. punicapunctatum Urquhart, 1891 — New Zealand
  • T. punongpalayum Barrion & Litsinger, 1995 — Philippines
  • T. purcelli O. P.-Cambridge, 1904 — St. Helena, South Africa
  • T. pyramidale L. Koch, 1867 — Queensland, New South Wales
  • T. pyrenaeum Denis, 1944 — Spain, Andorra
  • T. qingzangense Hu, 2001 — China
  • T. quadratum (O. P.-Cambridge, 1882) — Sri Lanka, Sumatra
  • T. quadrilineatum Lenz, 1886 — Madagascar
  • T. quadripapulatum Thorell, 1895 — Myanmar
  • T. quadripartitum Keyserling, 1891 — Brazil
  • T. rabuni Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 — USA, Bahama Islands
  • T. rafflesi Simon, 1899 — Sumatra
  • T. rampum Levi, 1963 — Peru, Venezuela
  • T. ravum Levi, 1963 — Venezuela
  • T. refugum Drensky, 1929 — Austria, Balkans, Bulgaria, Greece, Russia
  • T. reinhardti Charitonov, 1946 — Uzbekistan
  • T. resum Levi, 1959 — Panama
  • T. retreatense Strand, 1909 — South Africa
  • T. retrocitum Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. rhodonotum Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. ricense Levi, 1959 — Puerto Rico
  • T. rossi Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. rostriferum Simon, 1895 — West Africa
  • T. rothi Levi, 1959 — Mexico
  • T. rubiginosum Keyserling, 1884 — Brazil
  • T. rubrum (Keyserling, 1886) — Brazil
  • T. rurrenabaque Levi, 1963 — Bolivia
  • T. ruwenzoricola Strand, 1913 — Central Africa
  • T. saanichum Chamberlin & Ivie, 1947 — USA, Canada, Alaska
  • T. sabinjonis Strand, 1913 — Central Africa
  • T. sadani Monga & Singh, 1989 — India
  • T. samoense Berland, 1929 — Samoa
  • T. sanctum Levi, 1959 — Mexico
  • T. sangzhiense Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. sardis Chamberlin & Ivie, 1944 — USA
  • T. saropus Thorell, 1887 — Myanmar
  • T. schlingeri Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. schrammeli Levi, 1963 — Mexico
  • T. sciaphilum Benoit, 1977 — St. Helena
  • T. semitinctum Simon, 1914 — Spain, France, Balearic is.
  • T. senckenbergi Levi, 1963 — Venezuela
  • T. septempunctatum Berland, 1933 — Marquesas Islands
  • T. serpatusum Guan & Zhu, 1993 — China
  • T. sertatum Simon, 1909 — Vietnam
  • T. setiferum Roewer, 1942 — Myanmar
  • T. setosum L. Koch, 1872 — Queensland, New Hebrides, Samoa, New Caledonia
  • T. setum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. seximaculatum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. sibiricum Marusik, 1988 — Russia, Mongolia
  • T. sinaloa Levi, 1959 — Mexico
  • T. sisyphium (Clerck, 1757) — Palearctic
    • T. sisyphium foliiferum Thorell, 1875 — Spain
    • T. sisyphium torandae Strand, 1917 — Yarkand, Karakorum
  • T. soaresi Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. societatis Berland, 1934 — Tahiti
  • T. solium Benoit, 1977 — St. Helena
  • T. spinigerum Rainbow, 1916 — Queensland
  • T. spinitarse O. P.-Cambridge, 1876 — North Africa
  • T. spinosissimum Caporiacco, 1934 — Karakorum
  • T. squalidum Urquhart, 1886 — New Zealand
  • T. stamotum Levi, 1963 — Venezuela
  • T. stannardi Levi, 1963 — Mexico
  • T. strepitus Peck & Shear, 1987 — Galapagos Islands
  • T. striatum Keyserling, 1884 — Brazil
  • T. styligerum F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 — Mexico, Guatemala
  • T. subitum O. P.-Cambridge, 1885 — India
  • T. submirabile Zhu & Song, 1993 — China, Korea
  • T. submissum Gertsch & Davis, 1936 — USA, Mexico, Bahama Islands, Jamaica
  • T. subpingue Simon, 1908 — Western Australia
  • T. subradiatum Simon, 1901 — Malaysia
  • T. subrotundum Keyserling, 1891 — Brazil
  • T. subvittatum Simon, 1889 — India
  • T. sulawesiense Marusik & Penney, 2005 — Sulawesi
  • T. swarczewskii Wierzbicki, 1902 — Azerbaijan
  • T. taegense Paik, 1996 — Korea
  • T. tahitiae Berland, 1934 — Tahiti
  • T. tamerlani Roewer, 1942 — Myanmar
  • T. tayrona Müller & Heimer, 1990 — Colombia
  • T. tebanum Levi, 1963 — Venezuela
  • T. teliferum Simon, 1895 — Sri Lanka
  • T. tenellum C. L. Koch, 1841 — Greece
  • T. tenuissimum Thorell, 1898 — Myanmar
  • T. teresae Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. tessellatum Thorell, 1899 — Cameroon
  • T. teutanoides Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. thaleri Marusik, 1988 — Russia
  • T. thalia Workman, 1878 — Myanmar
  • T. theridioides (Keyserling, 1890) — China, Queensland, New South Wales
  • T. thorelli L. Koch, 1865 — New South Wales
  • T. tigrae Esyunin & Efimik, 1996 — Russia
  • T. tikaderi Patel, 1973 — India
  • T. timpanogos Levi, 1957 — USA
  • T. tinctorium Keyserling, 1891 — Brazil
  • T. t-notatum Thorell, 1895 — Myanmar, Singapore
  • T. todinum Simon, 1880 — New Caledonia
  • T. topo Levi, 1963 — Ecuador
  • T. torosum Keyserling, 1884 — Peru
  • T. trahax Blackwall, 1866 — Africa
  • T. transgressum Petrunkevitch, 1911 — USA, Mexico
  • T. trepidum O. P.-Cambridge, 1898 — Mexico to Panama
  • T. triangulare Franganillo, 1936 — Cuba
  • T. trifile Simon, 1907 — West, East Africa
  • T. trigonicum Thorell, 1890 — Sumatra, Java
  • T. tristani Levi, 1959 — Costa Rica
  • T. triviale Thorell, 1881 — Australia
  • T. trizonatum Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. tubicola Doleschall, 1859 — Java, Moluccas, New Guinea
  • T. tungurahua Levi, 1963 — Venezuela, Ecuador, Brazil
  • T. turrialba Levi, 1959 — Costa Rica
  • T. uber Keyserling, 1884 — Brazil
  • T. uhligi Martin, 1974 — Europe
  • T. umbilicus Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. uncatum F. O. P.-Cambridge, 1902 — Mexico
  • T. undatum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. undulanotum Roewer, 1942 — New Hebrides
  • T. urnigerum Thorell, 1898 — Myanmar
  • T. ursoi Caporiacco, 1947 — Ethiopia
  • T. urucum Levi, 1963 — Brazil
  • T. usitum Strand, 1913 — Central Africa
  • T. utcuyacu Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. valleculum Levi, 1959 — Panama
  • T. vallisalinarum Levy & Amitai, 1982 — Israel
  • T. vanhoeffeni Strand, 1909 — South Africa
  • T. varians Hahn, 1833 — Holarctic
    • T. varians cyrenaicum Caporiacco, 1933 — Libya
    • T. varians melanotum Strand, 1907 — Germany
    • T. varians rusticum Simon, 1873 — Western Mediterranean
  • T. ventricosum Rainbow, 1916 — Queensland
  • T. vespertinum Levy, 1985 — Israel
  • T. viridanum Urquhart, 1887 — New Zealand
  • T. volubile Keyserling, 1884 — Venezuela, Ecuador, Peru
  • T. vosserleri Strand, 1907 — East Africa
  • T. vossi Strand, 1907 — Cameroon
  • T. vossioni Simon, 1884 — Sudan
  • T. vulvum Levi, 1959 — Panama
  • T. weberi Thorell, 1892 — Singapore
  • T. weyrauchi Levi, 1963 — Peru
  • T. whitcombi Sedgwick, 1973 — Chile
  • T. wiehlei Schenkel, 1938 — Spain, France, Algeria
  • T. workmani Thorell, 1887 — Myanmar
  • T. xianfengense Zhu & Song, 1992 — China, Taiwan
  • T. xinjiangense (Hu & Wu, 1989) — China
  • T. yani Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. yuma Levi, 1963 — USA
  • T. yunnanense Schenkel, 1963 — China
  • T. zantholabio Urquhart, 1886 — New Zealand
  • T. zebra Caporiacco, 1949 — Kenya
  • T. zebrinum Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. zekharya Levy, 2007 — Israel
  • T. zhangmuense Hu, 2001 — China
  • T. zhaoi Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. zhoui Zhu, 1998 — China
  • T. zonarium Keyserling, 1884 — Peru
  • T. zonatum Eydoux & Souleyet, 1841 — Unknown
  • T. zonulatum Thorell, 1890 — Sumatra
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