Her original name was Teresa de Cepeda y Ahumada, and her chosen name as a nun was Theresa of Jesus. She came of a well-to-do noble family. She entered the Carmelite order (possibly in 1536). Much later she underwent (c.1555) a "second conversion," after which she experienced mystic visions. She had entertained a desire to found a house of reformed Carmelites (the Discalced, or Barefoot, Carmelites, living in strict observance of the rule) long before she had the opportunity in 1562 to found the Convent of St. Joseph in Ávila. Other foundations were made, and in the busy years that followed she traveled much to the various houses. She also founded convents of friars, having as her collaborator another great mystic, St. John of the Cross.
St. Theresa combined intense practicality with the most rarefied spirituality. She was an excellent and tireless manager, waging a long and ultimately successful struggle with other branches of the clergy to have the Discalced Carmelites separated from the older order and eventually founding 17 convents. The reawakening of religious fervor that she brought about in Spain was astonishing. Soon after her death the movement spread beyond Spain and across Christendom, having a profound effect on the Counter Reformation. She brought mysticism and its fruits to the common person. She was canonized in 1622. Feast: Oct. 15.
The writings of St. Theresa have gained a steadily widening audience from the 16th cent. to the present; in 1970 Pope Paul VI named St. Theresa a Doctor of the Church, the first woman so honored. The Castilian in which St. Theresa wrote stems from common speech, and the imagery is rich but simple. Candor and overflowing spiritual strength lend a greater beauty to the sometimes terse, sometimes discursive expressions. Her works were dominated by love of God and characterized by humor, intelligence, and common sense.
The Life (written 1562-65) is a spiritual autobiography written for her confessors and containing not only the record of her progress in mysticism but also short treatises on prayer and vision; editions usually include the supplementary Relations, short pieces written for the same purpose as the Life. Her Way of Perfection was written after 1565 to supply her nuns worthy instruction on prayer; it is still found very useful by the religious and by layreaders. In Interior Castle (written in 1577) she gives a glowing and powerful picture of the contemplative life. The Foundations (written 1573-82) is an account of the launching of her order.
Her letters—brisk, vigorous, full of wisdom and humor—are much loved. She also wrote shorter pieces—Exclamations of the Soul to God (1569), rhapsodic meditations; a commentary on the mystic significance of the Song of Solomon; the Constitutions, for the Discalced Carmelite nuns; and Method for the Visitation of Convents of Discalced Nuns. There have been several translations of her writings, including E. Allison Peers (3 vol., 1957).
See biographies by H. A. Hatzfeld (1969), E. A. Peers (1945, repr. 1973), and C. Medwick (1999); studies by E. W. T. Dickens (1963) and R. T. Petersson (1970).
Many miracles are attributed to her, but perhaps the greatest miracle connected with her is that she became known at all. A simple nun in an obscure convent, she was remarkable only for her goodness. The holiness of her life so impressed her superior that Theresa was asked to write her spiritual autobiography. This has become one of the most widely read religious autobiographies. It is filled, as are her letters, with her message of seeking good with childlike simplicity. She exemplified the "little way"—achieving goodness by performing the humblest task and carrying out the most trivial action.
She was canonized in 1925, just 28 years after her death, and Lisieux has become a major place of pilgrimage. There are churches dedicated to St. Theresa throughout the Roman Catholic world, and meditations from her writings are read by many of the devout with the frequency of a manual of prayer. She is often represented in art with an armful of roses, because of her cryptic promise: "After my death, I will let fall a shower of roses." In 1997, Pope John Paul II named her a Doctor of the Church. She is the patron of aviators and foreign missionaries. Feast: Sept. 30.
See her autobiography (tr. 1958; new tr. 1975, 3d. ed. 1996); selected correspondence in Maurice and Thérèse (ed. by P. V. Ahern, 1998); biographies by B. Ulanov (1965) and G. Gaucher (tr. 1993).
(born May 13, 1717, Vienna, Austria—died Nov. 29, 1780, Vienna) Archduchess of Austria and queen of Hungary and Bohemia (1740–80). She was the eldest daughter of Emperor Charles VI, who promulgated the Pragmatic Sanction to allow her to succeed to the Habsburg domains. Opposition to her succession led in 1740 to the War of the Austrian Succession. After Emperor Charles VII died (1745), she obtained the imperial crown for her husband, who became Francis I. She helped initiate financial and educational reforms, promoted commerce and the development of agriculture, and reorganized the army, all of which strengthened Austria's resources. Continued conflict with Prussia led to the Seven Years' War and later to the War of the Bavarian Succession. After her husband's death (1765), her son became emperor as Joseph II. She criticized many of his actions but agreed to the partition of Poland (1772). A key figure in the power politics of 18th-century Europe, Maria Theresa brought unity to the Habsburg monarchy and was considered one of its most capable rulers. Her 16 children also included Marie-Antoinette and Leopold II.
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According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 0.8 square miles (2.0 km²), of which, 0.8 square miles (1.9 km²) of it is land and 0.04 square miles (0.1 km²) of it (2.60%) is water.
There were 495 households out of which 34.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 60.6% were married couples living together, 9.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 26.1% were non-families. 20.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the village the population was spread out with 26.0% under the age of 18, 6.6% from 18 to 24, 33.7% from 25 to 44, 19.3% from 45 to 64, and 14.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 99.4 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 98.5 males.
The median income for a household in the village was $44,200, and the median income for a family was $50,795. Males had a median income of $37,216 versus $26,023 for females. The per capita income for the village was $17,906. About 1.7% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 2.2% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
Theresa Is the Rock in My Life.She Reads Me Better Than I Read Myself; CELTIC'S ROY KEANE ON HIS No1 LOVE IN LIFE..HIS WIFE
Dec 18, 2005; Byline: By HEATHER GREENAWAY IN the stormy life of new Celtic star Roy Keane, she is the woman he calls "his rock". Now...