[thee-uh-dawr, -dohr]
Parker, Theodore, 1810-60, American theologian and social reformer, b. Lexington, Mass. He graduated from Harvard Divinity School in 1836 and was pastor (1837-46) of the Spring Street Unitarian Church, West Roxbury, Mass. The liberalism that he presented in Boston in 1841 and amplified in his scholarly Discourse of Matters Pertaining to Religion (1842) was then so radical that the Boston Unitarian clergy withdrew from him, although he remained a member of their association. He was one of the transcendentalists, contributed to the Dial, and edited (1847-50) the Massachusetts Quarterly Review. In 1845 he became preacher of the Twenty-eighth Congregational Society of Boston. His congregation grew to 7,000. In addition he lectured at lyceums throughout the country and was a leader in antislavery and other reform activities. In 1859 ill health forced him to retire, and he died in Florence. After his death Parker's works were widely read, and his once radical views gained acceptance. The best edition of his works is the Centenary (15 vol., 1907-13).

See J. Weiss, The Life and Correspondence of Theodore Parker (1864, repr. 1969); biographies by O. B. Frothingham (1874) and H. S. Commager (1936, repr. 1960); J. W. Chadwick, Theodore Parker, Preacher and Reformer (1900, repr. 1971); J. E. Dirks, The Critical Theology of Theodore Parker (1948, repr. 1970).

Gaza, Theodore, c.1398-c.1478, Greek scholar, b. Salonica. When the Turks attacked Constantinople, he went to Italy, where he became one of the greatest classical scholars and humanists of the Renaissance. His patrons included the Este family, Pope Nicholas V, and Cardinal Bessarion. Gaza was responsible for spreading Greek learning from Ferrara, Rome, and Naples. His Greek grammar was printed by Aldus Manutius in 1495.
Beza, Theodore (Théodore de Bèze), 1519-1605, French Calvinist theologian. In 1548 he joined John Calvin at Geneva and soon became his intimate friend and chief aid. From 1549 to 1558, Beza was professor of Greek at Lausanne, where he wrote De haereticis a civili magistratu puniendis (1554), a defense of the conduct of Calvin and the Genevan magistrates in the notorious trial and burning of Servetus. In 1558 he became professor of Greek at Geneva, and in 1564 he succeeded Calvin in the chair of theology at Geneva. Beza came to be regarded as the chief advocate of all reformed congregations in France, serving with distinction at the Colloquy of Poissy (see Poissy, Colloquy of). He was of great importance in aiding the edition of the Greek and Latin versions of the New Testament, and he gave Codex D, or Codex Bezae, one of the most important manuscripts of the Bible, to the Univ. of Cambridge.
Pangalos, Theodore, 1878-1952, Greek general and politician. He was instrumental in the overthrow (1922) of King Constantine I and initially supported the republic (1924). In June, 1925, he seized power, and in Jan., 1926, he suspended the constitution and assumed dictatorial powers, causing Paul Kondouriotis to resign as president and securing his own election to this post in Apr., 1926. Pangalos was overthrown in turn (Aug., 1926) by George Kondylis, who recalled Kondouriotis. Pangalos was imprisoned until 1928 and then in 1930 was deported to Kérkira (Corfu) for two years because of his involvement in new plots.
Frelinghuysen, Theodore, 1787-1862, American politician and educator, b. Franklin, N.J. Admitted to the bar in 1808, he practiced law in Newark and soon gained political prominence. As U.S. Senator (1829-35), he won renown for his speech opposing the removal of the Cherokee and other southern Native Americans to lands W of the Mississippi. He was mayor of Newark (1836-39) until he became (1839) chancellor of New York Univ. In 1844 he was vice presidential candidate on the Whig ticket with Henry Clay. From 1850 until his death, Frelinghuysen was president of Rutgers College.
Roosevelt, Theodore, 1858-1919, 26th President of the United States (1901-9), b. New York City.

Early Life and Political Posts

Of a prosperous and distinguished family, Theodore Roosevelt was educated by private tutors and traveled widely. He was a delicate youth, and his determined efforts to overcome this had a marked effect on his character. After graduating (1880) from Harvard, he studied law at Columbia.

Roosevelt's interest was drawn to politics, and while serving (1882-84) in the New York state legislature as a Republican, he strongly opposed the nomination of James G. Blaine for the U.S. presidency. After Blaine's nomination, however, Roosevelt supported him, and that lost him much of his political backing. Discouraged by this turn of events, and bereaved by the deaths (1884) of his mother and his wife, Alice Hathaway Lee, Roosevelt retired to his ranch in the Dakota Territory.

He returned (1886) to New York City and ran as the Republican candidate for mayor against Henry George and Abram S. Hewitt; he came in third. He became increasingly important in Republican party politics. Appointed (1889) by President Benjamin Harrison as a member of the Civil Service Commission, he was noted for his vigor in the post until he resigned in 1895. As head (1895-97) of the New York City police board, Roosevelt accomplished little but nevertheless gained public notice by his advocacy of reform.

In 1897 he returned to federal office as Assistant Secretary of the Navy under President McKinley. An ardent supporter of U.S. expansion, he worked toward putting the U.S. navy on a war basis for the coming war with Spain. After the outbreak of the Spanish-American war, he resigned to organize, with Leonard Wood, the volunteer regiment that won fame as the Rough Riders. Returning from Cuba a popular hero, Roosevelt ran (1898) for the governorship of New York state, winning by a small margin. Republican "boss" Thomas C. Platt had supported him in his candidacy, but after Roosevelt's inauguration the two differed when Roosevelt imposed taxes on corporation franchises. It was at least partially to shelve Roosevelt that Platt backed his nomination as Vice President in 1900. The McKinley-Roosevelt slate was elected, but Roosevelt served as Vice President only a few months. McKinley was assassinated, and Roosevelt became (Sept. 14, 1901) President shortly before his 43d birthday, making him the youngest person to hold that office. (John F. Kennedy was the youngest person to be elected President.)


Domestic Policy

Roosevelt's inexhaustible vitality and enthusiasm, aided by his ability to dramatize himself and to coin vivid phrases, made him a popular president. His intellectual interests did much to elevate the tone of American politics. On the other hand, he drew considerable criticism for his glorification of military strength and his patriotic fervor.

He recognized, from the outset of his first administration, the growing demand for reform that was expressed in the writings of the muckrakers. From 1902 he set about "trust busting" under terms of the moribund Sherman Antitrust Act, ordered the successful antitrust suit against the Northern Securities Company, and led the attack on a number of other large trusts. Altogether, his administration began some 40 suits against trusts. Roosevelt's threat to intervene in the anthracite coal strike of 1902 induced the operators to accept arbitration.

In his first term he also fathered important legislation, including the Reclamation Act of 1902 (the Newlands Act), which made possible federal irrigation projects; the bill (1903) establishing the U.S. Department of Commerce and Labor; and the Elkins Act of 1903, which put an end to freight rebates by railroads. Roosevelt's vigorous championship of the rights of the "little man" captured the American imagination, and when he ran for reelection in 1904 he defeated Alton B. Parker, the Democratic presidential candidate, by 196 electoral votes.

In his second administration Roosevelt directed the passage (1906) of the Hepburn Act, which revitalized the Interstate Commerce Commission and authorized greater governmental authority over railroads. In 1906 he backed the passage of the Meat Inspection Act and the Pure Food and Drug Act. A firm believer in conservation of national resources, he sought to halt exhaustion of timber and mineral supplies by private interests and added many millions of acres of land to public ownership. His progressive reforms were directed not at the abolition of big business but at its regulation—an attitude shown by his tacit approval of the absorption of the Tennessee Coal and Iron Company by United States Steel in the panic of 1907. By his aggressive domestic policy, Roosevelt decisively increased the power of the President.

Foreign Policy

Roosevelt's forcefulness was equally manifest in his foreign policy. Ably backed by John Hay and Elihu Root, he set out to solidify the world position won by the United States in the Spanish-American War. His efforts to enhance U.S. prestige and influence won him the hatred of anti-imperialist groups. Most notable, perhaps, was his Caribbean policy. In the Venezuela Claims dispute, Roosevelt, fearing German intervention in Venezuela, worked for a peaceful settlement that would maintain Venezuela's territorial integrity.

Later (1904), when the Dominican Republic—which was deeply in debt to European bond holders—was threatened with intervention by European powers, the President enunciated a new U.S. policy that would forestall such action. In what came to be known as the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe Doctrine, the President claimed that the United States had direct interest and the obligation to impose order in the affairs of Latin American countries. The Dominican Republic was forced to accept the appointment of a U.S. customs receiver. This policy aroused great indignation in Latin America.

Even more drastic was Roosevelt's action regarding the Panama Canal. After the Colombian senate refused to ratify the proposed Hay-Herrán Treaty, a U.S. navy warship, the Nashville, prevented the landing of additional Colombian troops in Panama, thus contributing to the success of the Panamanian revolution (1903). Roosevelt immediately recognized the new republic of Panama, and the Panama Canal was begun. Roosevelt's policy in Latin America prepared the way for "dollar diplomacy" in that area.

Roosevelt was also active generally in world affairs. With Hay, he endeavored to maintain the Open Door in China. In 1904, as mediator, he brought about the peace conference at Portsmouth, N.H., to end the Russo-Japanese War; and he was awarded the 1906 Nobel Peace Prize. He was an ardent advocate of the Hague Tribunal, and it was through his offices that the Algeciras Conference was called in 1906 to settle the Morocco question. In 1907 his gentleman's agreement with Japan to discourage emigration of Japanese laborers to the United States eased the tensions caused by California's anti-Japanese legislation.

The 1912 Election and After

Roosevelt virtually dictated the nomination of his presidential successor, William Howard Taft; after an African big-game expedition and a triumphal tour of European cities, Roosevelt returned (1910) to the United States and joined the campaign for the direct primary in New York. President Taft alienated the progressive Republicans headed by Robert M. La Follette, and the Republican party in 1912 was threatened with a split over the presidential nomination. The conservatives, however, controlled the Republican convention of 1912, and Taft was nominated for reelection.

Roosevelt led his followers out of the convention, organized the Progressive party—also called the Bull Moose party—and was nominated for President on this third-party slate. In the resulting three-cornered election he ran second to the Democratic candidate, Woodrow Wilson. Forced into retirement, Roosevelt denounced the policies of Wilson—whose attempt to secure a treaty awarding Colombia damages for the loss of Panama particularly enraged him. After the outbreak of World War I he attacked Wilson's neutrality policy; and when the United States entered the war he pleaded vainly to be allowed to raise and command a volunteer force. He died soon after the end of World War I.


During his busy career he had found time not only for hunting and exploring expeditions—including exploration (1913) of the River of Doubt (now called the Roosevelt River or Rio Teodoro) in the Amazon jungle—but also for writing a great number of books. They deal with history, hunting, wildlife, and politics. Among them are The Naval War of 1812 (1882), biographies of Thomas H. Benton (1887) and Gouverneur Morris (1888), The Winning of the West (4 vol., 1889-96), African Game Trails (1910), The New Nationalism (1910), Progressive Principles (1913), Through the Brazilian Wilderness (1914), and his important autobiography (1913).


Alice, his daughter by his first wife, married Nicholas Longworth in the White House; "Princess Alice" attracted much notice by her forthright personality, unconventional ways, and able tongue (see Longworth, Alice Lee Roosevelt). There were five children of his second marriage (1886) to Edith Kermit Carow—Theodore, Jr., Kermit, Archibald Bullock, Ethel Carow (Mrs. Richard Derby), and Quentin. Quentin was killed in World War I; Theodore, Jr., and Kermit both died in active service in World War II.


See biographies by H. F. Pringle (rev. ed. 1956, 1992), N. F. Busch (1963), D. W. Grantham, ed. (1971), H. W. Brands (repr. 1998), S. A. Cordery (2002), and K. Dalton (2002); G. E. Mowry, Theodore Roosevelt and the Progressive Movement (1946, repr. 1960); J. M. Blum, The Republican Roosevelt (1954, repr. 1962); H. K. Beale, Theodore Roosevelt and the Rise of America to World Power (1956, repr. 1989); W. H. Harbaugh, The Life and Times of Theodore Roosevelt (1963); G. W. Chessman, Theodore Roosevelt and the Politics of Power (1969); E. Morris, The Rise of Theodore Roosevelt (1979) and Theodore Rex (2001); D. McCullough, Mornings on Horseback (1980); M. L. Collins, That Damned Cowboy (1989); C. Millard, The River of Doubt: Theodore Roosevelt's Darkest Journey (2005); P. O'Toole, When Trumpets Call: Theodore Roosevelt after the White House (2005); D. Brinkley, The Wilderness Warrior (2009).

Roszak, Theodore, 1907-, American sculptor, b. Poland. Commencing his artistic career as a painter, Roszak began in the late 1930s to create constructions in plastics and metal. In the postwar period his style underwent an abrupt change in the direction of irregular and explosive forms, symbolic and fantastic in content. Roszak's Thorn Blossom (Whitney Mus., New York City) and Whaler of Nantucket (1952; Art Inst. of Chicago) are representative examples that carried sculpture toward abstract expressionism.

See study by H. H. Arnason (1956).

Tilton, Theodore, 1835-1907, American journalist, b. New York City. After working for the New York Observer he was (1863-71) editor in chief of the Independent, a Congregationalist weekly. He later managed (1872-74) his own weekly, the Golden Age. A popular lyceum speaker, Tilton supported various social reforms such as woman suffrage. He and his wife were active parishioners of Henry Ward Beecher, whom, in what has been called 19th-cent. America's most famous scandal, Tilton sued (1874) for alleged adultery with Mrs. Tilton. The suit lasted for months and ended in a hung jury. In 1883, Tilton went to Europe, where he lived for the remainder of his life. His publications include a romantic novel, Tempest Tossed (1873), and several volumes of poetry.

See R. Shaplen, Free Love and Heavenly Sinners (1954); R. W. Fox, Trials of Intimacy (2000).

Lyman, Theodore, 1833-97, American naturalist, b. Waltham, Mass., grad. Harvard, 1855, and Lawrence Scientific School, Harvard, 1858. He was in the Union army as an aide (1863-65) on the staff of Gen. George Meade. As Massachusetts commissioner of inland fisheries (1866-83) he was a leader in the movement for the conservation of food fish. For the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology (with which he was associated, 1859-87) he published many scientific papers on marine forms. He served in Congress (1882-85) as an independent in favor of civil service reform.
Sedgwick, Theodore, 1746-1813, American lawyer and statesman, b. West Hartford, Conn. He practiced law in Massachusetts after being admitted (1766) to the bar. In the American Revolution he acted (1776) as military secretary to Gen. John Thomas on the Canadian expedition. After serving in the state legislature for several years, he became a member of the Continental Congress, was concerned with the suppression of Shays's Rebellion, and was a delegate to the Massachusetts convention that ratified the Constitution (1788). A Federalist, from 1789 to 1801 he served both in the U.S. House of Representatives, where he was speaker (1799-1801), and in the Senate. He was afterward judge of the Supreme Judicial Court of Massachusetts until his death.

See biography by R. E. Welch, Jr. (1965).

Theodore. For Russian rulers thus named, use Feodor.
Brameld, Theodore, 1904-87, American educator, b. Neillsville, Wis., grad. Ripon College, 1926; Ph.D. Univ. of Chicago, 1931. Brameld was best known for his theory of reconstructionism, which received widespread attention in educational circles. He held that a system of public education that is aware of the findings of the behavioral sciences can bring about fundamental changes in the social and economic structure of society. His writings include Ends and Means in Education (1950), Philosophies of Education in Cultural Perspective (1955), Toward a Reconstructed Philosophy of Education (1956), The Climactic Decades (1970), and Tourism as Cultural Learning (1977).
Dwight, Theodore, 1764-1846, American author, b. Northampton, Mass.; brother of Timothy Dwight and grandson of Jonathan Edwards. A leader of the Federalist party in New England, he became famous for his political pamphlets and articles. As one of the younger Connecticut Wits he proved himself a highly capable satirist. He served in Congress (1806-7), in the Connecticut state council (1809-15), and as secretary of the Hartford Convention. He later wrote the journal of the convention (1833).
Robinson, Theodore, 1852-96, American painter, b. Irasburg, Vt. Beginning his career as a realist, Robinson was profoundly influenced by his meeting with Monet in 1888. Translating the impressionist rendering of light, air, and broken color to the American landscape, Robinson combined contemporary American and European trends. His Giverny: Bird's-Eye View is in the Metropolitan Museum.
Roethke, Theodore, 1908-63, American poet, b. Saginaw, Mich., educated at the Univ. of Michigan and Harvard. A poet of the Midwest, Roethke combined a love of the land with his vision of the development of the individual. The moods of his poetry range from acid wit to simple feeling, his poetic technique from straightforward language and meters to free forms that approach the surreal. Among his volumes of poetry are Open House (1941), The Lost Son and Other Poems (1948), The Waking (1953, Pulitzer Prize), Words for the Wind (1957), I Am! Says the Lamb (1961), and The Far Field (1964). On the Poet and His Craft (1965) contains essays and lectures.

See his notebooks, ed. by D. Wagoner (1980); letters, ed. by R. J. Mills, Jr. (1968); biography by A. Seager (1968); studies by J. Parini (1979) and R. Stiffler (1986).

Dreiser, Theodore, 1871-1945, American novelist, b. Terre Haute, Ind. A pioneer of naturalism in American literature, Dreiser wrote novels reflecting his mechanistic view of life, a concept that held humanity as the victim of such ungovernable forces as economics, biology, society, and even chance. In his works, conventional morality is unimportant, consciously virtuous behavior having little to do with material success and happiness. While his style and language tended to be clumsy and plodding, he played an important role in introducing a new realism and sexual candor into American fiction. Dreiser was born into a large and poor family. His education was irregular, but, with help from a sympathetic high school teacher, he spent the year 1889-90 at the Univ. of Indiana. After working as a journalist on several midwestern newspapers, in 1894 he went to New York City, where he began a career in publishing, eventually rising to the presidency of Butterick Publications.

His first novel, Sister Carrie (1900), the story of a country girl's rise to material success first as the mistress of a wealthy man and then as an actress, horrified its publisher, who gave it only limited circulation. Dreiser distributed it himself, but it was consistently attacked as immoral; it was reissued in 1982 with many passages from his revised typescript restored. Jennie Gerhardt (1911), again about a "fallen woman," met with a better response; its success allowed Dreiser to work as a writer full time. With these two works, Dreiser started his long battle for the right of the novelist to portray life as he sees it.

In The Financier (1912), he turned his attention more specifically to American social and economic institutions. This novel, the first of a trilogy that includes The Titan (1914) and The Stoic (1947), describes the rise to power of a ruthless industrialist. In both The Genius (1915) and in The Bulwark (1946), Dreiser explores the failings of an American artist. An American Tragedy (1925), often considered his greatest work, tells of a poor young man's futile effort to achieve social and financial success; the attempt ends in his execution for murder. In his later life Dreiser became interested in socialism, visiting the Soviet Union as a guest of the government and writing his perceptions: Dreiser Looks at Russia (1928) and Tragic America (1931). Among his other works are such collections of short stories as Free (1918), Chains (1927), and A Gallery of Women (1929).

See his memoirs, A Traveler at Forty (1913), A Book About Myself (1922; republished as Newspaper Days, 1931), and Dawn (1931); his letters, ed. by R. Elias (3 vol., 1959); biographies by W. A. Swanberg (1965) and R. Lingeman (2 vol., 1986-90); studies by E. Moers (1969), F. O. Matthiessen (1951, repr. 1973), J. Lundquist (1974), and L. E. Hussman (1983).

Kolokotronis, Theodore, 1770-1843, Greek patriot and general. A leader in the Greek War of Independence against Ottoman rule in the 1820s, he was instrumental in the capture of Trípolis, Návplion, Corinth, Pátrai, and Árgos. In 1823 he was appointed commander in chief of forces in the Peloponnesus. A supporter of Count Capo d'Istria, Kolokotronis was one of the leading pro-Russian advocates. He opposed the regency of Bavarian ministers during the minority of King Otto I and was charged with treason, but he was pardoned in 1835. Kolokotronis is the hero of numerous folk songs.

See his Memoirs from the Greek War of Independence, 1821-1833 (tr., new and enl. ed. 1969).

Watts-Dunton, Theodore (Walter Theodore Watts-Dunton), 1832-1914, English poet, novelist, and critic. A member of the staff of the Examiner (1874-76), he became editor of the Athenaeum (1876-98). He was the benefactor of Swinburne, whose life he organized and who lived with him from 1879 to 1909. Watts-Dunton edited many literary classics and contributed important articles to The Encyclopaedia Britannica. Among his works are The Coming of Love (1897); Aylwin (1898), a romantic novel about Gypsies; The Christmas Dream (1901); and Old Familiar Faces (1916), a volume of recollections.

See biography by J. Douglas (1904, repr. 1973); M. Beerbohm, "No. 2 The Pines," in And Even Now (1920); M. Panter-Downes, At the Pines (1971).

Theodore is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Mobile County, Alabama, United States. At the 2000 census the population was 6,811. It is a part of the Mobile metropolitan statistical area. Prior to 1900 this area was known as Clements, but is now named for William Theodore Hieronymous (a sawmill operator and postmaster).


Theodore is located at (30.550690, -88.180878).

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the community has a total area of 11.9 square miles (30.9 km²), all of it land.


As of the census of 2000, there were 6,811 people, 2,483 households, and 1,926 families residing in the community. The population density was 571.6 people per square mile (220.6/km²). There were 2,697 housing units at an average density of 226.3/sq mi (87.4/km²). The racial makeup of the community was 71.11% White, 25.58% Black or African American, 0.62% Native American, 1.29% Asian, 0.41% from other races, and 1.00% from two or more races. 1.38% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 2,483 households out of which 38.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.6% were married couples living together, 19.4% had a female householder with no husband present, and 22.4% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.1% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.73 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the community the population was spread out with 28.5% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 29.2% from 25 to 44, 22.0% from 45 to 64, and 10.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 34 years. For every 100 females there were 92.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.6 males.

The median income for a household in the community was $33,750, and the median income for a family was $36,500. Males had a median income of $32,297 versus $19,679 for females. The per capita income for the community was $15,129. About 16.3% of families and 18.7% of the population were below the poverty line, including 25.6% of those under age 18 and 23.5% of those age 65 or over.

Points of interest


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