The phenomenon of information overload has meant that access to coherent and correctly-developed summaries is vital. As access to data has increased so has interest in automatic summarization. An example of the use of summarization technology is search engines such as Google.
Extraction techniques merely copy the information deemed most important by the system to the summary (for example, key clauses, sentences or paragraphs), while abstraction involves paraphrasing sections of the source document. In general, abstraction can condense a text more strongly than extraction, but the programs that can do this are harder to develop as they require the use of natural language generation technology, which itself is a growing field.
Summarization systems are able to create both query relevant text summaries and generic machine-generated summaries depending on what the user needs. Summarization of multimedia documents, e.g. pictures or movies are also possible.
Some systems will generate a summary based on a single source document, while others can use multiple source documents (for example, a cluster of news stories on the same topic). These systems are known as multi-document summarization systems.
Apart from Fully Automated Summarizers (FAS), there are systems that aid users with the task of summarization (MAHS = Machine Aided Human Summarization), for example by highlighting candidate passages to be included in the summary, and there are systems that depend on post-processing by a human (HAMS = Human Aided Machine Summarization).
One of the metrics used in NIST's annual Document Understanding Conferences, in which research groups submit their systems for both summarization and translation tasks, is the ROUGE metric (Recall-Oriented Understudy for Gisting Evaluation ). It essentially calculates n-gram overlaps between automatically generated summaries and previously-written human summaries. A high level of overlap should indicate a high level of shared concepts between the two summaries. Note that overlap metrics like this are unable to provide any feedback on a summary's coherence. Anaphor resolution remains another problem yet to be fully solved.
Patent Application Titled "Using Text Summaries of Images to Conduct Bandwidth Sensitive Status Updates" Published Online
Jun 27, 2013; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Computer Weekly News -- According to news reporting originating from Washington, D.C., by...
Publication No. WO/2010/033503 Published on March 25, Assigned to Abbott Diabetes Care for Graphical User Interface (American Inventors)
Mar 26, 2010; GENEVA, March 31 -- Lynn Dixon, Jonathan Fern, Juli Goldstein, Nicole J. Walker, Samuel Mason Curry, Jr.William Matievich, John...