Singapore also has many links to the rest of the world — there are two bridges which link Singapore to Malaysia — the Causeway, and the Second Link. The Singapore Changi Airport is a major aviation hub for many airlines, and Singapore is a major transshipment port.
Before World War 2, rickshaws were an important part of urban public transportation. Rickshaws were taken over by the trishaw after the world war. The Trishaw has been discontinued for usage as a means of transportation after 1980. However, there are some trishaws left which now serve as tourist attractions, taking tourists for a ride around the downtown district for a unique Singapore experience.
The planning, construction and maintenance of the road network is overseen by the Land Transport Authority (LTA), and this extends to expressways in Singapore. These form key transport arteries between the distinct towns and regional centres as laid out in Singapore's urban planning, with the main purpose of allowing vehicles to travel from satellite towns to the city centre and vice-versa in the shortest possible distance. These expressways include:
The influence of expressways on Singapore's transport policy developed shortly after independence during the history of Singapore because of frequent traffic congestion in the Central district. The aim was to encourage residential development in other parts of the island and give residents in these new "satellite towns" a convenient link between their homes and their workplaces (which were mostly situated around the city centre.)
The Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) is a standard gauge system with a total rail network length of 109.4 km and 64 stations. There are three main lines running at present: the North South Line, the East West Line (both operated by SMRT Corporation), and the North East Line (operated by SBS Transit). A new Circle Line is slated for completion in 2010 and will be opened in phases as various stations are completed.
In 1998, a 7.8 km-Light Rapid Transit (LRT) system with 14 stations was introduced in Bukit Panjang. The Sengkang LRT Line, a 10.7 km light rail line was opened in 2003; a third LRT line, Punggol LRT Line, was opened in 2005 Jan with the East Loop of the system serving the residences in Punggol.
Public transport in Singapore covers a variety of transport modes such as bus, rail and taxi and is widely utilised by her population. This is a result of great emphasis by the Government of Singapore in order to promote its use over private transport. About 5.308 million trips are made on a daily basis on the public transport system and at least half of its population utilizes it daily.
The public transport system is the most important means of transportation to work and to school for Singaporeans. About 52.4% of Singaporean residents (excluding foreigners) go to work using public transport according to the Singapore Census of Population 2000 , with 41.6% using private transport and the remaining 6.1% not requiring any form of transport. Amongst school-going residents, 41.5% of them goes to school by public transport, 24.9% by private transport, and a further 30.1% do not require any form of transport at all.
A slight dip has been noted in the number of Singaporeans and permanent residents using public transport compared to 1990, which had 55.0% and 46.3% of them going to work and to school respectively. The government aims to reverse this trend such that the total average number of commuters on public transport rises above 75% of all trips made.
All taxis are fitted with meters; all are air conditioned; the majority of the taxis are 5-seaters; about 90% of taxis have radiophones; call booking is done via GPS or digital voice dispatch. All passengers must fasten their seat belts by law. Most taxis run on diesel fuel.
Daily trips: about 588,632
Taxi companies and vehicle types used:
ComfortDelgro Comfort Taxis (11147 cabs)
ComfortDelgro CityCab (3835 cabs)
Individual Yellow-Top Cab (482 cabs)
SMRT Taxis (3004 cabs)
Union Energy Corporation TransCab (2139 cabs)
Premier Taxis SilverCab (2436 cabs)
Smart Automobile (781 cabs)
Prime Taxis (198 cabs)
The public transport system is regulated by the Land Transport Authority, which overseas the three main modes of public transportation. Fare regulation and bus service standards are under the purview of an independent body, the Public Transport Council, while TransitLink, established by SBS Transit, SMRT Trains and SMRT Buses, helps to create an integrated multi-modal system with a common fare-payment mode, information platform, and a physical network without duplication of services.
The policies of the Land Transport Authority are meant to encourage the use of public transport in Singapore. The key aims are to provide an incentive to reside away from the Central district, as well as to reduce air pollution. Singapore has a Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) and Light Rapid Transit (LRT) rail system consisting of five lines. There is also a system of bus routes throughout the island, most of which have air conditioning due to Singapore's tropical climate. Buses without air conditioning are gradually being phased out. A contactless smartcard called the EZ-link card is used to pay bus and MRT fares.
Singapore has two land links to Malaysia. The Causeway, built in the 1920s to connect Johor Bahru (Johor, Malaysia) to Woodlands in Singapore, carries a road and a railway line. The Tuas Second Link, a bridge further west, was completed in 1996 and links Tuas in Singapore to Tanjung Kupang in Johor (Malaysia).
The island rail's terminal at Tanjong Pagar Railway Station is linked to the Malaysian rail network KTM across the 1.2 km causeway to Johor Bahru on the Malay Peninsula. It connects with Kuala Lumpur and Bangkok.
There are boats and ferry services to nearby islands of Malaysia and Indonesia. These services can be found at Changi Ferry Terminal, Changi Point Ferry Terminal, Tanah Merah Ferry Terminal and Singapore Cruise Centre.
The Port of Singapore, run by the port operators PSA International (formerly the Port of Singapore Authority) and Jurong Port, is the world's busiest in terms of shipping tonnage handled. 1.04 billion gross tons were handled in the year 2004, crossing the one billion mark for the first time in Singapore’s maritime history. Singapore also emerged as the top port in terms of cargo tonnage handled with 393 million tonnes of cargo in the same year, beating the Port of Rotterdam for the first time in the process. In 2006, it handled a total of 448 million tonnes of cargo.
Singapore is ranked second globally in terms of containerised traffic, with 21.3 million Twenty-Foot Equivalent Units (TEUs) handled in 2004, and is also the world's busiest hub for transshipment traffic. Additionally, Singapore is the world's largest bunkering hub, with 23.6 million tonnes sold in 2004.
In 2007, The Port of Singapore is ranked the world's busiest port once again, surpassing Hong Kong and Shanghai. The Port of Singapore is also ranked the Best Seaport in Asia.
|Cosco-PSA (CPT)||Cosco/PSA||Container||2||720||228,000||>1 million|
|Pasir Panjang (PPT)||PSA||Container||12||49||1,770,000|
|Pasir Panjang Wharves||PSA||General|
|Tanjong Pagar (TPT)||PSA||Container||8||27||840,000|
Singapore aims to be Asia's aviation hub chiefly via the promotion of liberal aviation policies in a bid to encourage airlines to commence and maintain operations there. The aviation industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore, a statutory board of the Singapore government under the Ministry of Transport.
An open skies agreement was concluded with the United Kingdom in October 2007 permitting unrestricted services from Singapore by UK carriers. Singapore carriers were allowed to operate domestic UK services as well as services beyond London Heathrow to a number of destinations, including the United States.
Seletar Airport is Singapore's first civil aviation airport and is primarily used for private aviation today. The airport also serves limited scheduled commercial flights by Berjaya Air to the Malaysian islands of Pulau Tioman and Pulau Redang
|Paya Lebar Air Base||WSAP||QPG||Military||Paved||12400||3800 m||Former civilian|
|Seletar Airport||WSSL||XSP||Civilian||Paved||5300||1615||Mainly non-scheduled flights|
|Sembawang Air Base||WSAG||Military||Paved||3000||914|
|Singapore Changi Airport||WSSS||SIN||Civilian||Paved||13200||4000|
|Tengah Air Base||WSAT||TGA||Military||Paved||8900||2713|