Jain Muni or simply Muni is the term often used for Jain monks.
A Jain monk does not have a permanent home and does not have any possessions. He wanders barefoot from place to place except for the four months of the rainy season. A Jain monk is not a priest; rather he is himself a worshipped one.
A full Jain monk in either Svetambar or Digambar traditioncan belong to one of these ranks:
- Acharya: leader of the order
- Upadhyaya: a learned monk, who both teaches and studies himself
- Muni: an ordinary monk
Thse three are mentioned is the three lines of the Namokar Mantra.
In the Digambar tradition, a junior monk can be a:
- Ailak: they use one piece of cloth
- Kshullak: they may use two pieces of cloth
The Svetambar Terapanthi sect has a new rank of junior monks who are called samana.
The nuns are called Aryikas in Digambar tradition and Sadhvi in the Svetambar tradition.
Famous historical Jain monks
Some of the famous Jain Acharyas in approximate chronological order, are:
- Gautam Ganadhara
- Ganahar Sudharma Swami
- Jambu Swami
- Bhadrabahu (undivided sangha, Chandragupta Maurya was his disciple) (325 BCE)
- Sthulabhadra (Svetambar tradition)
- Kundakunda, (Digambar tradition) (2nd century CE)
- Samantabhadra, (Digambar tradition) (3-4 rth century CE)
- Siddhasen Diwakar, (claimed by both) (5nd century CE)
- Manatunga composer of Bhaktamar Stotra, (claimed by both)
- Haribhadra,(Svetambar tradition), (700-750 CE)
- Akalanka, (Digambar tradition), (620-680 CE)
- Virasena, (Digambar tradition), (790-825 CE)
- Jinasena, (Digambar tradition), preceptor of Rashtrakuta rulers, (800-880 CE).
- Nemichandra, (Digambar tradition)
- Hemachandra,(Svetambar tradition), preceptor of Kumarapala, (1089–1172 CE)
- Jagadguru Hira Vijaya Suri, (Svetambar tradition), who was invited by Akbar, the Mughal emperor
- Rajendrasuri (Svetambar tradition)(1827-1906)
- Shantisagar, (Digambar tradition) (1872-1955)
- Acharya Vidyasagar, (Digambar tradition) (Born 1946)
Famous historical Jain nuns
- Aryika Chandanbala
- Sadhvi Yakini Mahattara
Famous modern Jain monks
Some famous Jain monks currently living (sadhu or muni or maharaj) are as follows:
ACHARYA KAILASHSAGAR SURIand SHRI PADMASAGAR SURI
Famous modern Jain nuns
- Ganani Arika Ratna 105 Vijayamathi Mataji
- Ganini Pramukh Shri Gyanmati Mataji
- Sadhvi Acharya Chandana
Chaturmas (VarshaYog) for Jain Monks
Chaturmas means the four months of the monsoon, a practice observed by both Digamber and Shwetamber Jain monks and nuns. Chaturmas is related to the staying of the Jain monks and nuns in one place during this period. Because during this time the Jain monks and nuns have settled in the city/town for a longer duration, it is a suitable time for the householders to have an annual renewal of the faith by listening to the statement of the Dharma and by meditation and vartas (self-control). And for the Jain monks, almost as importantly, staying in one place during the monsoon reduces the risk of causing accidental death to numerous insects and smaller forms of life that thrive during the rains.
See Chaturmas information of Jain Monks & Nuns 2008