Sunda Islands

Sunda Islands

[suhn-duh; Du. soon-dah]
Sunda Islands, mainly in Indonesia, between the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean, comprising the western part of the Malay Archipelago. It includes two main groups: the Greater Sunda Islands, to which belong the largest islands of Borneo, Sumatra, Java, and Sulawesi; and the Lesser Sundas, which lie E of Java and include Sumbawa, Flores, Timor, and Sumba (the largest islands). Bali and Lombok, although smaller, are the most important of the Lesser Sundas. The Lesser Sundas, which were renamed Nusa Tenggara [southeastern islands] in 1954, form two provinces within Indonesia. Malaysia, Brunei, and East Timor are the other nations wholly or partially in the Sunda Islands. The Sunda Strait, 20 to 65 mi (32-100 km) wide, between Java and Sumatra, connects the Java Sea with the Indian Ocean.

The Nusa Tenggara (lit. Southeast Islands), or Lesser Sunda Islands, are a group of islands in the middle-south part of the Malay Archipelago. Together with the Greater Sunda Islands to the west they make up the Sunda Islands. The islands are part of a volcanic arc, the Sunda Arc, formed by subduction along the Java Trench.

Partial list


They are split into the independent state of East Timor (Timor-Leste) and the Indonesian provinces of Bali, West Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Barat) and East Nusa Tenggara (Nusa Tenggara Timur).

Geology and ecology

The geology and ecology of Nusa Tenggara shares much similar history, characteristics and processes with the neighbouring Maluku Islands region. There is a long history of geological study of these regions since Indonesian colonial times, however, the geological formation and progression is not fully understood, and theories of the island's geological evolution have changed extensively in recent decades. Nusa Tenggara comprises some of the most geologically complex and active regions in the world. Biodiversity and its distribution in Nusa Tenggara is affected by various tectonic activities; most of the islands are geologically young being from 1 million to 15 million years old, and have never been attached to the larger landmassess.

The Nusa Tenggara islands differ from other areas in Indonesia; they contain some of the country's smallest islands, coral island reefs scattered through some of the deepest seas in the world, and no large islands such as Java or Sumatra. Flora and fauna immigration between islands is thus restricted, leading to the evolution of a high rate of endemic biota. The ecology of Nusa Tenggara has fascinated collectors for centuries; Alfred Wallace's famous book, The Malay Archipelago was the first significant recording of this natural history, and remains one of the most important sources on Indonesian natural history.

While many ecological problems affect both small islands and large landmasses, small islands suffer their particular problems and are highly exposed to external forces. Development pressures on small islands are increasing, although their effects are not always anticipated. Although Indonesia is richly endowed with natural resources, the resources of the small islands of Nusa Tenggara are limited and specialised; furthermore human resources in particular are limited.

General observations about small islands that can be applied to Nusa Tenggara include:

  • a higher proportion of the landmass will be affected by volcanic activity, earthquakes, landslips, and cyclone damage;
  • Climates are more likely to be maritime influenced;
  • Catchment areas are smaller and degree of erosion higher;
  • A higher proportion of the landmass is made up of coastal areas;
  • A higher degree of environmental specialisation, including a higher proportion of endemic species in an overall depauperate community;
  • Societies may retain a strong sense of culture having developed in relative isolation;
  • Small island populations are more likely to be affected by economic migration.


  • Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y., Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd.. ISBN 962-593-076-0.


See also

External links

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