The village name 'Claydon' is Anglo Saxon in origin, and means 'clay hill'. In the Domesday Book of 1086 the area (including the nearby places of Botolph Claydon, East Claydon and Middle Claydon) was known as Claindone. The prefix 'Steeple' refers to the steeple of the parish church, which is prominent in the village, and was added to differentiate it from the other local places.
The manor of Steeple Claydon was once a royal possession. It was given as a wedding gift to Robert D'Oiley by King Henry I because D'Oyly was marrying one of the king's former mistresses. Later, after changing hands several times it came into the possession of King Edward IV when it was left to him in the will of his grandfather the Earl of March. The manor house has since been pulled down.
Thomas Chaloner, the regicide, built a school in the village in 1656. This site later became the public library. The current Steeple Claydon School is a mixed, community, primary school, which has approximately 150 pupils from the age of four through to the age of eleven.
Today Steeple Claydon is one of the largest villages in the Aylesbury Vale, and it has a very active local community.
The village has 3 pubs, a co-op with cash machine, newsagents, bakery, Post Office, hair studio, fish & chip shop, dentist, doctors and garage.
The village also had notable residents including Florence Nightingale.