South Australia

South Australia

South Australia, state (1991 pop. 1,236,623), 380,070 sq mi (984,381 sq km), S central Australia. It is bounded on the S by the Indian Ocean. Kangaroo Island and many smaller islands off the south coast are included in the state. Adelaide is the capital; other important cities are Port Pirie, Port Augusta, Whyalla, and Mt. Gambier. Two thirds of the state's population live in the Adelaide metropolitan area. Much of South Australia is inhospitable terrain—deserts, mountains, salt lakes, and swampland. The Musgrave Ranges are in the north, the Flinders Ranges in the east, and the Great Victoria Desert and the Nullarbor Plain in the west. The only important river is the Murray, in the extreme southeast. The heavily populated southeastern area has a mild and healthful climate, while the north is arid to semiarid. Agriculture, confined almost exclusively to the Murray River area, consists of the raising of barley and grapes (for wine and brandy) and of wheat, oats, and rye. Livestock are grazed in the northern plains. There are valuable mineral deposits in the state; iron ore, salt, and gypsum are mined, and coal and natural gas are exploited. Industry developed rapidly during and after World War II; the chief products are industrial metals and transportation equipment. South Australia's coastal areas were visited by the Dutch in 1627. The British explorer Matthew Flinders noted likely settlement sites in 1802. Prompted by the writings of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, a British colonial statesman, the English Parliament passed the South Australian Colonization Act in 1834, and in Dec., 1836, the first colonists arrived and proclaimed South Australia a colony. In South Australia, unlike most of Australia, convicts were not admitted as settlers. In 1901, South Australia was federated as a state of the commonwealth. Northern Territory, which had been included in the state in 1863, was transferred in 1911 to the commonwealth government. The government of South Australia consists of a premier, a cabinet, and a bicameral state parliament. The nominal chief executive is the governor, appointed by the British crown on advice of the cabinet.

State (pop., 2006: 1,514,337), south-central Australia. It covers an area of 379,725 sq mi (983,482 sq km), and its capital is Adelaide. The Dutch visited the coast in 1627. British explorers arrived in the early 1800s, and it was colonized as a British province in 1836. Its vast interior, a large part of which is barren, includes Lake Eyre and the Flinders Ranges. A major world source of opals, it also produces most of the wine and brandy consumed in Australia. It has the country's largest shipyards. It became a state of the Commonwealth of Australia in 1901. Its southeastern part has become industrialized since World War II.

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See Premiers of the Australian states for a description and history of the office of Premier.

Before the 1890s, there was no formal party system in South Australia. The liberals dominated government from 1893 to 1905 with Labor support, with the conservatives mostly in opposition. Labor took government when they gained more seats than the liberals in 1905, which saw non-Labor politics begin to merge in to various party incarnations. The conservatives merged with the Liberal and Democratic Union (formed in 1906) to become the Liberal Union in 1910, when Labor formed the first South Australian majority government. No "Country" or rural conservative parties emerged as serious forces, often folding in to the non-Labor party.

List of Premiers in South Australia

The first six Governors of South Australia oversaw governance from 1836 until responsible government was introduced in 1856.

No. Name Party Assumed office Left office Period
1 Boyle Finniss 24 October 1856 21 August 1857
2 John Baker 21 August 1857 1 September 1857
3 Robert Torrens 1 September 1857 30 September 1857
4 Richard Hanson 30 September 1857 9 May 1860
5 Thomas Reynolds 9 May 1860 8 October 1861
6 George Waterhouse 8 October 1861 4 July 1863
7 Francis Dutton 4 July 1863 15 July 1863
8 Henry Ayers 15 July 1863 4 August 1864
9 Arthur Blyth 4 August 1864 22 March 1865
- Francis Dutton (2nd time) 22 March 1865 20 September 1865
Total - 193 days
- Henry Ayers (2nd time) 20 September 1865 23 October 1865
Total - 1 year, 53 days
10 John Hart 23 October 1865 28 March 1866
11 James Boucaut 28 March 1866 3 May 1867
- Henry Ayers (3rd time) 3 May 1867 24 September 1868
Total - 2 years, 197 days
- John Hart (2nd time) 24 September 1868 13 October 1868
Total - 175 days
- Henry Ayers (4th time) 13 October 1868 3 November 1868
Total - 2 years, 218 days
12 Henry Strangways 3 November 1868 30 May 1870
- John Hart (3rd time) 30 May 1870 10 November 1871
Total - 1 year, 339 days
- Arthur Blyth (2nd time) 10 November 1871 22 January 1872
Total - 303 days
- Henry Ayers (5th time) 22 January 1872 22 July 1873
Total - 4 years, 34 days
- Arthur Blyth (3rd time) 22 July 1873 3 June 1875
Total - 2 years, 254 days
- James Boucaut (2nd time) 3 June 1875 6 June 1876
Total - 2 years, 39 days
13 John Colton 6 June 1876 26 October 1877
- James Boucaut (3rd time) 26 October 1877 27 September 1878
Total - 3 years, 10 days
14 William Morgan 27 September 1878 24 June 1881
15 Sir John Cox Bray 24 June 1881 16 June 1884
- John Colton (2nd time) 16 June 1884 16 June 1885
Total - 2 years, 142 days
16 John Downer 16 June 1885 11 June 1887
17 Thomas Playford 11 June 1887 27 June 1889
18 John Cockburn 27 June 1889 19 August 1890
- Thomas Playford II (2nd time) 19 August 1890 21 June 1892
3 years, 323 days
19 Frederick Holder 21 June 1892 15 October 1892
- Sir John Downer (2nd time) conservatism 15 October 1892 16 June 1893
Total - 2 year, 239 days
20 Charles Kingston liberalism 16 June 1893 1 December 1899
21 Vaiben Solomon conservatism 1 December 1899 8 December 1899
- Frederick Holder (2nd time) liberalism 8 December 1899 15 May 1901
Total - 1 year, 274 days
22 John Jenkins liberalism 15 May 1901 1 March 1905
23 Richard Butler conservatism 1 March 1905 26 July 1905
24 Thomas Price Australian Labor Party (Labor) 26 July 1905 5 June 1909
25 Archibald Peake Liberal and Democratic Union 5 June 1909 3 June 1910
26 John Verran Labor 3 June 1910 17 February 1912
- Archibald Peake (2nd time) Liberal Union 17 February 1912 3 April 1915
Total - 4 years, 43 days
27 Crawford Vaughan Labor 3 April 1915 14 July 1917
- Archibald Peake (3rd time) Liberal Union 14 July 1917 8 April 1920
Total - 6 years, 312 days
28 Henry Barwell Liberal Union/Liberal Federation 8 April 1920 16 April 1924
29 John Gunn Labor 16 April 1924 28 August 1926
30 Lionel Hill Labor 28 August 1926 8 April 1927
31 Richard L. Butler Liberal Federation 8 April 1927 17 April 1930
- Lionel Hill (2nd time) Labor 17 April 1930 13 February 1933
Total - 3 years, 160 days
32 Robert Richards Labor 13 February 1933 18 April 1933
- Richard L. Butler (2nd time) Liberal and Country League (LCL) 18 April 1933 5 November 1938
Total - 8 years, 210 days
33 Sir Thomas Playford LCL 5 November 1938 10 March 1965
34 Frank Walsh Labor 10 March 1965 1 June 1967
35 Don Dunstan Labor 1 June 1967 17 April 1968
36 Steele Hall LCL 17 April 1968 2 June 1970
- Don Dunstan (2nd time) Labor 2 June 1970 15 February 1979
Total - 9 years, 214 days
37 Des Corcoran Labor 15 February 1979 18 September 1979
38 Dr David Tonkin Liberal Party of Australia (Liberal) 18 September 1979 10 November 1982
39 John Bannon Labor 10 November 1982 4 September 1992
40 Lynn Arnold Labor 4 September 1992 14 December 1993
41 Dean Brown Liberal 14 December 1993 28 November 1996
42 John Olsen Liberal 28 November 1996 22 October 2001
43 Rob Kerin Liberal 22 October 2001 5 April 2002
44 Mike Rann Labor 5 April 2002 Present

Graphical timeline since 1892

In the following timeline, the legend includes Liberal and Democratic Union and later the Liberal Union with the Liberal Federation. The grey area represents duration of Playmander electoral malapportionment.

Living former premiers

As of November 2007, six former premiers are alive, the oldest being Steele Hall (1968–70, born 1928). The most recent premier to die was Des Corcoran (1979), on January 3 2004. The most recently-serving premier to die was Dr David Tonkin (1979–1982), on October 2 2000.

Name Term as premier Date of birth
Steele Hall 1968–1970 28 November 1928
John Bannon 1982–1992 1943
Dr Lynn Arnold 1992–1993 January 27 1949
Dean Brown 1993–1996 1943
John Olsen 1996–2001 1945
Rob Kerin 2001–2002 1954

Gallery of the Premiers

No pictures are available for Steele Hall, John Bannon, Lynn Arnold, Dean Brown, John Olsen or Rob Kerin

References

See also

External links

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