solenoid

solenoid

[soh-luh-noid, sol-uh-]
solenoid, device made of a long wire that has been wound many times into a tightly packed coil; it has the shape of a long cylinder. If current is sent through a solenoid made of insulated wire and having a length much greater than its diameter, a uniform magnetic field will be created inside the solenoid. This field can be intensified by inserting a ferromagnetic core into the solenoid. See electromagnet; magnetism.

A solenoid is a three-dimensional coil. In physics, the term solenoid refers to a loop of wire, often wrapped around a metallic core, which produces a magnetic field when an electric current is passed through it. Solenoids are important because they can create controlled magnetic fields and can be used as electromagnets. The term solenoid refers specifically to a magnet designed to produce a uniform magnetic field in a volume of space (where some experiment might be carried out).

In engineering, the term solenoid may also refer to a variety of transducer devices that convert energy into linear motion. The term is also often used to refer to a solenoid valve, which is an integrated device containing an electromechanical solenoid which actuates either a pneumatic or hydraulic valve, or a solenoid switch, which is a specific type of relay that internally uses an electromechanical solenoid to operate an electrical switch; for example, an automobile starter solenoid, or a linear solenoid, which is an electromechanical solenoid.

Magnetic field

This is a derivation of the magnetic field around a solenoid that is long enough so that fringe effects can be ignored. In the diagram to the right, we immediately know that the field points in the positive z direction inside the solenoid, and in the negative z direction outside the solenoid.

We see this by applying the right hand grip rule for the field around a wire. If we wrap our right hand around a wire with the thumb pointing in the direction of the current, the fingers show how the field behaves. Since we are dealing with a long solenoid, all of the components of the magnetic field not pointing upwards cancel out by symmetry. Outside, a similar cancellation occurs, and the field is only pointing downwards.

Now consider loop "c". By Ampère's law, we know that the path integral of B around this loop is zero, since no current passes through it (and where it can be assumed that the circuital electric field passing through the loop is constant under such conditions such as a constant, or constantly changing current through the solenoid). We have shown above that the field is pointing upwards inside the solenoid, so the horizontal portions of loop "c" don't contribute anything to the integral. Thus the integral up side 1 is equal to the integral down side 2. Since we can arbitrarily change the dimensions of the loop and get the same result, the only physical explanation is that the integrands are actually equal, that is, the magnetic field inside the solenoid is constant. A similar argument can be applied to loop "a" to conclude that the field outside the solenoid is constant.

An intuitive argument can be used to show that the field outside the solenoid is actually zero. Magnetic field lines only exist as loops, they cannot diverge from or converge to a point like electric field lines can. The magnetic field lines go up the inside of the solenoid, so they must go down the outside so that they can form a loop. However, the volume outside the solenoid is much greater than the volume inside, so the density of magnetic field lines outside is greatly reduced. Recall also that the field outside is constant. In order for the total number of field lines to be conserved, the field outside must go to zero as the solenoid gets longer.

Now we can consider loop "b". Take the path integral of B around the loop, with the height of the loop set to h. The horizontal components vanish, and the field outside is zero, so Ampère's Law gives us:

B h = mu_0 N I

From which we get:

B = mu_0 frac{N I}{h}

This equation is for a solenoid with no core. The inclusion of a usually metal core, such as iron, increases the magnitude of the magnetic field of the solenoid when it is unchanged (same current, length, number of coils). This is expressed by the formula

B = mu_0 mu_r frac{N I}{h}
where μr is the relative permeability of the material that the core is made of. μ0μr is the permeability (μ) of the core material such that:

B = mu frac{N I}{h}

Rotary Voice Coil

This is a rotational version of a solenoid. Typically the fixed magnet is on the outside, and the coil part moves in an arc controlled by the current flow through the coils. Rotary voice coils are widely employed in devices such as disk drives.

Electromechanical solenoids

Electromechanical solenoids consist of an electromagnetically inductive coil, wound around a movable steel or iron slug (termed the armature). The coil is shaped such that the armature can be moved in and out of the center, altering the coil's inductance and thereby becoming an electromagnet. The armature is used to provide a mechanical force to some mechanism (such as controlling a pneumatic valve). Although typically weak over anything but very short distances, solenoids may be controlled directly by a controller circuit, and thus have very low reaction times.

The force applied to the armature is proportional to the change in inductance of the coil with respect to the change in position of the armature, and the current flowing through the coil. The force applied to the armature will always move the armature in a direction that increases the coil's inductance.

The magnetic field inside a solenoid is given by:

B=mu_0 n I=mu_0 frac{NI}{h}

where mu_0=4pi times 10^{-7} henries per meter, B is the magnetic field magnitude in teslas, n is the number of turns per meter, I is the current in amperes, N is the number of turns and h is the length of the solenoid in meters. See also: Electromagnet.

Electromechanical solenoids are commonly seen in electronic paintball markers, pinball machines, dot matrix printers and fuel injectors.

Pneumatic solenoid valves

A pneumatic solenoid valve is a switch for routing air to any pneumatic device, usually an actuator of some kind. A solenoid consists of a balanced or easily movable core, which channels the gas to the appropriate port, coupled to a small linear solenoid. The valve allows a small current applied to the solenoid to switch a large amount of high pressure gas, typically up to 100 psi (7 bar, 0.7 MPa, 0.7 MN/m²). Some solenoids are capable of operating at far greater pressures. Pneumatic solenoids may have one, two, or three output ports, and the requisite number of vents. The valves are commonly used to control a piston or other linear actuator.

The pneumatic solenoid is akin to a transistor, allowing a relatively small signal to control a large device. It is also the interface between electronic controllers and pneumatic systems.

Hydraulic solenoid valves

Hydraulic solenoid valves are in general similar to pneumatic solenoid valves except that they control the flow of hydraulic fluid (oil), often at around 3000 psi (210 bar, 21 MPa, 21 MN/m²). Hydraulic machinery uses solenoids to control the flow of oil to rams or actuators to (for instance) bend sheets of titanium in aerospace manufacturing. Solenoid-controlled valves are often used in irrigation systems, where a relatively weak solenoid opens and closes a small pilot valve, which in turn activates the main valve by applying fluid pressure to a piston or diaphragm that is mechanically coupled to the main valve.

Transmission solenoids control fluid flow through an automatic transmission and are typically installed in the transmission valve body.

Automobile starter solenoid

In a car or truck, the starter solenoid is part of an automobile ignition system. Also called a starter relay, the starter solenoid receives a large electric current from the car battery and a small electric current from the ignition switch. When the ignition switch is turned on (when the key is turned to start the car), the small electric current forces the starter solenoid to close a pair of heavy contacts, thus relaying the large electric current to the starter motor.

Starter solenoids can also be built into the starter itself, often visible on the outside of the starter. If a starter solenoid receives insufficient power from the battery, it will fail to start the motor, and may produce a rapid 'clicking' or 'clacking' sound. This can be caused by a low or dead battery, by corroded or loose connections in the cable, or by a broken or damaged positive (red) cable from the battery. Any of these will result in some power to the solenoid, but not enough hold the heavy contacts closed, so the starter motor itself never spins, and the engine is not rotated (does not start).

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