The Pakistan Army, combined with the Navy and Air Force, makes Pakistan's armed forces the seventh largest military in the world. The Army is modelled on the United Kingdom armed forces and came into existence after the independence in 1947. It has an active force of 619,000 personnel and 528,000 men in reserve that continue to serve until the age of 45 and several other groups functioning under its many umbrella organisations. The Pakistani Army is a volunteer force and has been involved in many conflicts with India. Combined with this rich combat experience, the Army is also actively involved in contributing to United Nations peacekeeping efforts. Other foreign deployments have consisted of Pakistani Army personnel as advisers in many African, South Asian and Arab countries. The Pakistani Army maintained division and brigade strength presences in some of the Arab countries during the past Arab-Israeli Wars, and the first Gulf War to help the Coalition. The Pakistani Army is led by General Ashfaq Parvez Kayani the Chief of Army Staff, who replaced Pervez Musharraf
Pakistan Army has a doctrine of limited "offensive-defense" which it has tried to refine consistently ever since 1989 when it was pushed out to the formations during "Exercise Zarb-e-Momin". The main purpose of this strategy is to launch a sizeable offensive into enemy territory rather than wait to be hit from the enemy's offensive attack. The doctrine is based on the premise that while on the offensive, the enemy can be kept off-balance while allowing Pakistani Army to be able to seize enemy territory of strategic importance which can be used as a bargaining chip on the negotiating table. In order to do this, currently Pakistani Army maintains two sizable Strike Corps which will be backed up by Defensive Corps forming the defensive tier behind the strike corps. By pushing the offensive into the enemy territory, the Pakistani Army hopes to consolidate its gains inside the enemy's territory and will attempt to keep the enemy on the its side of the border rather than giving ground on the Pakistani side.
In the 1990s, the Army created a strong centralized corps of reserves for its formations in the critical semi-desert and desert sectors in southern Punjab and Sindh provinces. These new formations were rapidly equipped with assets needed for mechanized capability. These reserve formations are dual-capable, meaning they can be used for offensive as well as defensive (holding) purposes.
Pakistan, today has a 45 day reserve of ammunition and fuel as compared to only 13 days in 1965 and has fairly effective and efficient lines of communication and can fully mobilize its formations in less than 96 hours owing to the lack of depth in the country's North South axis.
The Chief of the Army Staff (COAS), formerly called the Commander in Chief (C in C), is challenged with the responsibility of commanding the Pakistani Army. The COAS operates from army headquarters in Rawalpindi, near Islamabad. The Principal Staff Officers assisting him in his duties at the Lieutenant General level include a Chief of General Staff (CGS), who supervises the day to day running of the army, Director General Military Operations (DGMO), responsible for the overall operational planning; the Master General of Ordnance (MGO)/Chief of Logistics Staff (CLS); the Quarter-Master General (QMG); the Adjutant General (AG); the Inspector General of Training and Evaluation (IGT&E); and the Military Secretary (MS). The headquarters function also includes the Judge Advocate General (JAG), and the Comptroller of Civilian Personnel, the Chief of the Corps of Engineers (E-in-C)who is also head of Military Engineering Service (MES), all of them also report to the Chief of the Army Staff.
The Pakistani Army is divided into two main branches, which are Arms and Services. Arms include:
And Services include:
|Army Unit||Number of Units|
|Special forces Brigades with 5 Battalions||2|
|Air Defence Command with 3 Air Defence Groups, 8 AD Brigades||8|
|Independent Mechanized Infantry Brigades||7|
|Independent Armoured brigades||8|
|Armored Recce Regiment||8|
*The President's Bodyguard formed at independence from members of the Governor General's Bodyguard, itself successor to the Governor's Troop of Moghals raised in 1773
*5th Horse is the successor to the 1st Sikh Irregular Cavalry (Wales's Horse), and the 2nd Sikh Irregular Cavalry, both raised in 1857
*6th Lancers is the successor to The Rohilkhand Horse raised in 1857, and the 4th Sikh Irregular Cavalry raised in 1858
*Guides Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to the Corps of Guides raised in 1846
*11th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the successor to 1st Regiment of Punjab Cavalry and 3rd Regiment of Punjab Cavalry, both raised in 1849
*13th Lancers is the successor to the 1st Native Troop raised in 1804, and the 2nd Native Troop raised in 1816. It is also the senior most armour regiment of the Indian Sub-Continent.
*19th Lancers is the successor to the 2nd Mahratta Horse (Tiwana Horse) raised in 1858, and Fane's Horse raised in 1860
*25th Cavalry (Frontier Force) is the famous unit which stopped Indian armour thrust in Chawinda in 1965
*The Punjab Regiment formed in 1956 from the 1st, 14th, 15th and 16th Punjab Regiments; can be traced back to the 3rd Battalion of Coast Sepoys raised in 1759
*The Baloch Regiment formed in 1956 from the 8th Punjab Regiment, The Baloch Regiment, and The Bahawalpur Regiment; can be traced back to the 3rd Extra Madras Battalion raised in 1798
*The Frontier Force Regiment is the successor to the Frontier Brigade raised in 1846
*The Azad Kashmir Regiment was raised in 1947, became part of the army in 1971
*The Sindh Regiment was raised in 1980 from battalions of the Punjab Regiment and Baloch Regiment
*The Northern Light Infantry was formed in 1977 from various paramilitary units of scouts, became part of the army in 1999 after the Kargil War
*The Special Service Group was formed in 1959 around a cadre from the Baloch Regiment
|Corps||HQ Location||Major Formations under Corps||Commander|
|I Corps||Mangla, Azad Kashmir||6th Armoured Division (Kharian), 17th Infantry Division (Kharian), 37th Infantry Division (Gujranwala)||Lt Gen Nadeem Ahmad|
|II Corps||Multan, Punjab||1st Armoured Division (Multan), 14th Infantry Division (Okara)||Lt Gen Sikandar Afzal|
|IV Corps||Lahore, Punjab||10th Infantry Division (Lahore), 11th Infantry Division (Lahore)||Lt Gen Ijaz Ahmed Bakhshi|
|V Corps||Karachi, Sindh||16th Infantry Division (Pano Akil), 18th Infantry Division (Hyderabad), 25th Mechanized Division (Malir)||Lt Gen Shahid Iqbal|
|X Corps||Rawalpindi, Punjab||Force Command Northern Areas (Gilgit), 12th Infantry Division (Murree), 19th Infantry Division (Mangla), 23rd Infantry Division (Jhelum)||Lt Gen Tahir Mahmood|
|XI Corps||Peshawar, North West Frontier Province||7th Infantry Division (Peshawar), 9th Infantry Division (Kohat)||Lt Gen Masood Aslam|
|XII Corps||Quetta, Balochistan||33rd Infantry Division (Quetta), 41st Infantry Division (Quetta)||Lt Gen Khalid Shameem Wynne|
|XXX Corps||Gujranwala, Punjab||8th Infantry Division (Sialkot), 15th Infantry Division (Sialkot)||Lt Gen Nadeem Taj|
|XXXI Corps||Bahawalpur, Punjab||26th Mechanized Division (Bahawalpur), 35th Infantry Division (Bahawalpur), 40th Infantry Division (Okara)||Lt Gen Muhammad Yousaf|
|Strategic Corps||Rawalpindi, Punjab||47th Artillery Brigade (Sargodha), others||Lt Gen Syed Absar Hussain|
The sole div HQ that went to Pakistan was 7th. 8 and 9 Divs were raised in 1947; 10, 12 and 14 Divs were raised in 1948. 15 Div was raised in 1950. At some point before 1954, 6 Div was raised and 9 Div disbanded. 6 Div was disbanded at some point after 1954 as US assistance was available only for 1 armd and 6 inf divs. 1 Armd Div was raised 1956.
6 Armoured and 11 Infantry Divisions were raised in adhoc form 1964-65. 16, 18 and 23 Divisions were raised at some point between 1966-69; and 9 Division was re-raised in this period.
Pakistani army also helped the Saudi Arabian Government in regaining the control of the Kaaba with the help of French Commandos. Pakistani and French security forces retook the Kaaba in a battle which left approximately 250 dead, and 600 wounded. The Pakistanis and French were called in after poor results from assaults by the Saudi Arabian National Guard (SANG). 127 were reported to have been killed.
In the mid-1970s the Pakistani Army was involved in fighting an uprising in Balochistan. Various Balochi factions, some with the oblique support of the USSR, wanted independence or at least greater provincial rights. The rebellion was put down but the Army suffered heavy casualties.
With the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, the United States began to provide large scale military and economic aid to Pakistan to modernize its conventional military capability and, ostensibly at least, prevent any Soviet attacks on it. This aid was also intended as an incentive for Pakistan to aid guerrilla forces (called "Army of GOD") in Afghanistan. The SSG created a unit called the Black Storks in which SSG commandos were dressed up as Afghan Mujahideen during the Soviet-Afghan war. They were then flown into Afghanistan and provided the Mujahideen with support. The United States allocated about 40% of its assistance package to non-reimbursable credits for military purchases, the fourth largest program after Israel,Egypt, and Turkey. The remainder of the aid program was devoted to economic assistance.
After the Soviets withdrew by 1989 and the Pakistani Nuclear weapons program nearing maturity, Pakistan was placed under sanctions by USA in 1990. Various weapon systems ordered by Pakistan such as F-16 Jets were not delivered but various amendments have authorized return of spare parts and end items already paid for by Pakistan. There was a period of international sanctions due to Pakistan's nuclear tests. During 1999 the Pakistan Army for the fourth time overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan
The Army fought a brief but bloody border skirmish with India in Kargil 1999 after the Pakistan Army sent in their para-military NLI troops dressed as mujahiddin. The Indian army responded with immense force, but suffered considerable casualties in assaults on the well entrenched Pakistani positions. There was a danger of the war spiraling out of control when Nawaz Sharif, under immense pressure from Washington, eventually ordered a withdrawal. This decision and the resulting Pakistani casualties created great resentment in the Army against the Prime Minister and is rumored to have contributed to his eventual over throwing by the COAS.
40 and 41 Divs were raised in the 1980s; Two more divs have been raised under the rubric "Corps Reserves" for V and XXXI corps.
In October 1999 the Pakistan Army for the fourth time, with popular support, overthrew a democratically elected government which resulted in additional sanctions being placed against Pakistan, resulting in General Pervez Musharraf coming to power in a bloodless coup. Musharraf stepped down as President in August 2008.
Since the 9/11 incident, Pakistan unrecognized Taliban and has become a key ally of the United States in the fight against terrorism. As part of the U.S.'s War on Terrorism, the army has moved over 50,000 troops to the Pakistan-Afghan border to patrol against extreme elements cross border infiltration.
The Pakistan Army commenced operations in Balochistan during 2006, resulting in the killing of the leader of the Balochis, Nawab Akbar Bugti and has resulted in the crushing of a rebellion by the Balochistan Liberation Army.
In the wake of the new world power equilibrium a more complex security environment has emerged. It is characterized by growing national power politics and state implosions which have necessitated involvement of the United Nations peace keeping forces for conflict resolution.
The United Nations has been undertaking peace keeping operations since its inception, but the need for employment of peace keeping forces has increased manifold since the Gulf War. In 1992 there were 11000 Blue Berets deployed around the world, by the end of the year the figure rose to 52000. Presently it exceeds a staggering figure of 80,000 troops.
Currently, Pakistan has the most operational army in UN peace keeping missions. Notable are its achievements in DRC and Somalia
Fauji Foundation (established in 1954) is a charitable trust, operating on a completely self sustaining basis, channeling approximately 80% of the profits from commercial ventures into social protection programmes that serve a beneficiary population representing approximately 7% of the country’s population.
Spending more than Rs. 21 billion since inception on welfare, the Foundation provides services in the areas of healthcare, education, educational stipends, technical and vocational training.
Considered the most sustainable social protection mechanism in the country, Fauji Foundation provides welfare services to approximately 10 million individuals on a completely sustainable basis. Running autonomously for over 50 years, the foundation has been providing healthcare, education, vocational and technical training to over 7% of the country’s population through 294 welfare projects.
In the thirty-six-week training period, they develop an attachment to the regiment they will remain with through much of their careers and begin to develop a sense of being a Pakistani rather than primarily a member of a tribe or a village. Enlisted men usually serve for eighteen years, during which they participate in regular training cycles and have the opportunity to take academic courses to help them advance.
About 320 men enter the army bi-annually through the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul in Abbottabad in the North West Frontier Province; a small number--especially physicians and technical specialists--are directly recruited, and these persons are part of the heart of the officer corps. The product of a highly competitive selection process, members of the officer corps have completed twelve years of education and spend two years at the Pakistan Military Academy, with their time divided about equally between military training and academic work to bring them up to a baccalaureate education level, which includes English-language skills.
The army has twelve other training establishments, including schools concentrating on specific skills such as infantry, artillery, intelligence, or mountain warfare. A National University of Science and Technology (NUST) has been established which has absorbed the existing colleges of engineering, signals, and electrical engineering. At the apex of the army training system is the Command and Staff College at Quetta, one of the few institutions inherited from the colonial period. The college offers a ten-month course in tactics, staff duties, administration, and command functions through the division level. Students from foreign countries, including the United States, have attended the school but reportedly have been critical of its narrow focus and failure to encourage speculative thinking or to give adequate attention to less glamorous subjects, such as logistics.
The senior training institution for all service branches is the National Defence University. Originally established in 1971 at Rawalpindi, to provide training in higher military strategy for senior officers, the school house was relocated to Islamabad in 1995. It also offers courses that allow civilians to explore the broader aspects of national security. In a program begun in the 1980s to upgrade the intellectual standards of the officer corps and increase awareness of the wider world, a small group of officers, has been detailed to academic training, achieving master's degrees and even doctorates at universities in Pakistan and abroad.
Pakistani officers were sent abroad during the 1950s and into the 1960s for training in Britain and other Commonwealth countries, and especially to the United States, where trainees numbering well in the hundreds attended a full range of institutions ranging from armored and infantry schools to the higher staff and command institutions. After 1961 this training was coordinated under the International Military Education and Training (IMET) program, but numbers varied along with vicissitudes in the United States-Pakistan military relationship. Of some 200 officers being sent abroad annually in the 1980s, over two-thirds went to the United States, but the cessation of United States aid in 1990 entailed suspension of the IMET program. In 1994 virtually all foreign training was in Commonwealth countries. However, after the 9/11 attacks, Pakistan again has begun sending officers to US Army schools. Today there are more than 400 officers serving in foreign countries.
Officers retire between the ages of fifty-two and sixty, depending on their rank.
In times of natural disaster, such as the great floods of 1992 or the October 2005 devastating earthquake, army engineers, medical and logistics personnel, and the armed forces played a major role in bringing relief and supplies.
The army also engaged in extensive economic activities. Most of these enterprises, such as stud and dairy farms, were for the army's own use, but others performed functions beneficial to the local civilian economy. Army factories produced such goods as sugar, fertilizer, and brass castings and sold them to civilian consumers.
Several army organizations performed functions that were important to the civilian sector across the country. For example, the National Logistics Cell was responsible for trucking food and other goods across the country; the Frontier Works Organization built the Karakoram Highway to China; and the Special Communication Organization maintained communications networks in remote parts of Pakistan. Pakistan Army is involved in relief activities not only in Pakistan but also in many other countries of the world, like they went for relief activities after Bangladesh was recently hit by floods. Pak Army also went to Indonesia, Bangladesh and Sri Lanka after they were hit by tsunami. Pakistan army and Navy sent ships and helicopters to the friendly nations for tsunami relief operation.
Women have served in the Pakistani Army since its foundation. Currently, there is a sizable number of Women serving in the army. Most women are recruited in the regular Army to perform medical and educational work. There is also a Women's Guard section of Pakistan's National Guard where women are trained in nursing, welfare and clerical work and there are also women recruited in very limited numbers for the Janbaz Force. Only recently has Pakistan began to recruit women for combat positions and the Elite Anti-Terrorist Force In 2007, several female graduates were nominated to be Sky Marshalls for Pakistan based airlines. In addition recently eight of the 41 cadets from the Pakistan Military Academy at Kakul became the first women guards of honour. Pakistan is the only country in the Islamic world to have women Major Generals in the Army.
Recruitment is nationwide and the army attempts to maintain an ethnic balance but most enlisted recruits, as in British times, come from a few districts in northern Punjab Province and the adjacent Azad Kashmir and the North West Frontier Province. Pakistan's Officer Corps are also mostly from Punjab and the North West Frontier Province and of middle-class, rural backgrounds.
Minorities in Pakistan are allowed to sit in all examinations, including the one conducted by Inter Services Selection Board however the proportion of religious minorities in the Pakistan army is still considerably very less. The army sees itself as a national institution and thus many non-Muslim officers (including Qadiyanis) have achieved high ranks within the army.
|Pakistani Officer Ranks|
|Rank||Field Marshal (5-Star)||COAS (4-Star)||General (4-Star)||Lieutenant General (3-Star)||Major General (2-Star)||Brigadier (1-Star)||Colonel||Lieutenant Colonel||Major||Captain||Lieutenant||2nd Lieutenant|
|Pakistani Junior Commissioned Officer (JCO) and Enlisted Ranks|
|Rank||Subedar Major (JCO)||Subedar (JCO)||Naib Subedar (JCO)||Battalion Havildar Major||Battalion Quartermaster Havildar||Company Havildar Major||Company Quartermaster Havildar||Havildar||Naik||Lance Naik||Jawan|
|Uniform insignia||No Insignia|
Recipients Nishan-e-Haider recipients receive an honorary title as a sign of respect: Shaheed meaning martyr for deceased recipients.
Two Pakistani pilots belonging to the army aviation branch of Pakistan army who carried out a daring rescue of a mountaineer are to be given Slovenia's top award for bravery. Slovenian, Tomaz Humar got stranded on the western end of the 8,125m Nanga Parbat mountain were he remained for around a week on top of the world's ninth-highest peak. The helicopter pilots plucked the 38-year-old from an icy ledge 6,000m up the peak known as "killer mountain".
The Slovenian president has presented Lt Col Rashid Ullah Beg and Lt Col Khalid Amir Rana with the Golden Order for Services in the country's capital, Ljubljana, "for risking their lives during the rescue mission", a Pakistan army statement said.
Special Service Group (SSG) is an independent commando division of the Pakistan Army. It is an elite special operations force similar to the United States Army Special Forces (Green Berets) and the British Army's SAS.
Official numbers are put at 2,100 men, in 3 Battalions; however the actual strength is classified. It is estimated to have been increased to 4 Battalions, with the eventual formation of 2 Brigades of Special Forces (6 Battalions). According to Indian analyst, Mandeep Singh Bajwa, the SSG "are formidable opponents and easily rank as one of the finest special forces in the world."
|Vehicle/System/Aircraft||Firm Number in Service||Status|
|Al Khalid Main Battle Tank||320||In Service, Under production. 600 planned|
|Type 85IIAP Main Battle Tank||200||In Service. Being phased out|
|Al-Zarar Tank Main Battle Tank||320||Currently under production|
|Type 79IIAP (Chinese T-81 Upgrade)||250||Being phased out by Al Khalid|
|T-80UD Main Battle Tank||320 + 250||Delivered by Ukraine between 1997 and early 2002. 250 more were ordered in early 2002.|
|Type 59||880||Being phased out by Al Zarrar & Al Khalid II|
|Hamza Infantry Fighting Vehicle||???||Being procured|
|Al-Fahd Infantry fighting vehicle||140||In Service|
|Talha Armoured Personnel Carrier||400+||Final number to be around 2,000|
|Sa'ad Armoured Personnel Carrier||???||Currently in production|
|M113 Armoured Personnel Carrier||1500+||In Service|
|BTR-70 Armoured Personnel Carrier||169||In Service|
|Mohafiz Light Armoured Personnel Carrier||???||In Service & Additional APCs being procured|
|Scorpion Light Jeep||260||In Service|
|Al Qaswa Logistical Vehicle||??||Being procured|
|M88 ARV Armoured Recovery Vehicle||???||In Service|
|M60A1 AVLB Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge||???||In Service|
|M48 Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge Armoured Vehicle Launched Bridge||???||In Service|
|Al-khalid II Main battle tank||3000 planned||under development|
|M109A5 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||???||115 Ordered along with 150 A5 upgrade kits|
|M109A2 155 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||150||In Service|
|M110A2 203 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||40||In Service|
|M7 Priest 105 mm Self-Propelled Howitzer||50||In Service|
|Type 56 85 mm Towed Artillery||200||In Service|
|M-56 105 mm Towed Artillery||80||In Service|
|M101 105 mm Towed Artillery||300||In Service|
|T-60 122 mm Towed Artillery||200||In Service|
|Type 54 122 mm Towed Artillery||400||In Service|
|Type 59I 130 mm Towed Artillery||200||In Service|
|M-59 155 mm Towed Artillery||30||In Service|
|M114 155 mm Towed Artillery||60||In Service|
|M-198 155 mm Towed Artillery||120||In Service|
|M-115 203 mm Towed Artillery||40||In Service|
|Panther T-155 mm Towed Artillery||12||Produced and Delivered byTurkey|
|AH-1S Cobra Attack Helicopter||18||In Service, (20 originally purchased in 1983; remaining being upgraded to AH-1F configuration)|
|AH-1F Cobra Attack Helicopter||20||In Service, (12 AH-1F delivered in 2007 with remaining 8 to be delivered in June 2008)|
|Bell 412 Huey Transport Helicopter||25||In Service|
|Bell 206 Jet Ranger Transport Helicopter||5||In Service|
|UH-1 Huey Transport Helicopter||10||In Service|
|Aérospatiale Puma Transport Helicopter||25||In Service|
|Mil Mi-17 Transport Helicopter||86||Additional helicopters planned|
|Bell 407 Light Transport Helicopter||45|
|Eurocopter AS-550 Light Transport Helicopter||50||Replacing Alouette III & Lama|
|Aérospatiale Alouette III Light Transport Helicopter||40||Being phased out|
|Aérospatiale SA-315B Lama Light Transport Helicopter (variant of Aerospatiale Alouette II)||40||Being phased out|
|Hatf-I/IA||80/100 km||500 kg||Deployed||1000+|
|Abdali||Hatf-II||180 km||500 kg||Deployed, Under production||800|
|Ghaznavi||Hatf-III||290 km||500 kg||Deployed, Under production||1100+|
|Shaheen-I||Hatf-IV||750 km||750 kg||Deployed, Under production||705-1150|
|Ghauri-I||Hatf-V||1500 km||700-1000 kg||Deployed, Under production||1100+|
|Ghauri-II||Hatf-VA||2,000km, More range with lighter payload.||1200 kg||Operational, Under production||1100+|
|Shaheen-II||Hatf-VI||2,500km, More range with lighter payload.||1000+ kg||Deployed, Under production||2100+|
|Babur||Hatf-VII||700 km||500 kg||Deployed, Cruise Missile||12000|
|Ghauri-III||Hatf-VIII||4,000 km less range with bigger payload.||2500+ kg,more range with less payload.||Operational, Under production|
|M-11||300 km||500 kg||In service||1000|
|Shaheen-III||4,500+ km||1000+ kg||Operational, Under production|
|Tipu Sultan||8000+ km||1500 kg||under development|
Note: Every missile can carry a nuclear warhead,also the tipu missile have a smaller range with a bigger payload,the range could be 2500 km and then the payload could be 4000 kg.
In addition, there exists the Shaheen-III, which is under research and development and will be solid fueled like the others in the Shaheen series. It will have a range of 3600+ km and a payload of 1000+ kg. This weapon is an Intermediate Range Ballistic Missile.
It has been recently reported by the Pakistani Press (Daily Jang) that Pakistan has the ability to use MIRVs on its missiles. This has been seen as possibly the greatest Pakistani Military achievement to date. It has also been reported that Pakistan would likely use MIRVs on its Shaheen-II missiles.Pakistan is likley to be building a babur-2,with a range of 1000-2000 km range.
Throughout the International Defence Exhibition & Seminar (IDEAS) at Karachi in November 2006, Pakistani firms have signed joint development, production and marketing agreements with defence firms from South Korea, France and Ukraine. These agreements include new reactive armour bricks, 155 mm artillery shells, and other developments in armour and land weaponry. These agreements all relate to the Pakistan Army's AFFDP-2019 modernization program of its armour, artillery and infantry.
A few months prior to IDEAS 2006, the Pakistan Army and Heavy Industries Taxila (HIT) announced the development of the Al Khalid II Main Battle Tank (MBT). The Al Khalid II is poised to become the Pakistan Army's backbone main battle tank from 2012; thus replacing 1200 obsolete Chinese T-59 and 300 T-85IIAP. Not much is known about this tank, but it is reported that the Al Khalid II is a very extensive upgrade of the current Al Khalid. Other reports suggest that it will be an entirely new tank based on Western designs. Turkish press reported that a Pakistani armour firm will participate in the Turkey's new generation tank project. Turkey and Pakistan have signed many memorandums of understanding in various defence-related fields. Given that many Pakistani firms have signed joint agreements with Western firms, it is possible that a considerable part of the Al Khalid II's design will be influenced from the Turkish tank design. Nonetheless, the new generation tank is expected to form the backbone of the Pakistan Army's tank force; in the long-term
The Pakistan Army will standardize its artillery capability to 155 mm by 2019. This can be seen by the acquisition of 115 M109A5 self-propelled howitzers from the United States, and joint production deals of 155 mm shells with French and South Korean firms. It is expected that the army will procure a range of light, medium and heavy towed and self-propelled howitzer artillery from China, Europe and the United States. These will replace all non-155 mm and older systems. The Army reportedly ordered and procured an undisclosed number of WS-1B Multiple Launch Rocket Systems (MLRS). As part of the artillery modernization program, the Army will likely procure a fair number of new MLRS systems of various ranges and shell sizes.
Modernization of the Army Aviation is underway with the procurement of new transport and attack helicopters from the United States, Russia and Europe. Finalized acquisitions include 26 Bell 412EP and at least a dozen Mi-17 medium-lift transport helicopters from the U.S and Russia, respectively. Forty Bell 407 and an unknown number of Fennec light helicopters from the U.S. and Eurocopter have also been ordered, respectively. Plans are underway to begin replacing the IAR 330 Puma, older Mil Mi-8/17, Bell Jet Rangers and older Huey helicopters; options include the Eurocopter NH-90 Tactical Transport Helicopter and UH-60M Blackhawk. The Pakistan Army has procured dozens of excess AH-1 Cobra attack helicopters since 2002; at least 20 have been brought into service to supplement the serving 18. These gunships are expected to add muscle to current terrorist support operations in NWFP.The army reportedly has upgraded its entire fleet with AH-1Z King Cobra avionics and new weapon systems such as the TOW-2 and Hellfire missiles. Up to 30 new-generation attack helicopters will be procured to further enhance the Army's attack aviation arm; options include the Eurocopter Tiger, South African AH-2 Rooivalk and Boeing AH-64D Apache Longbow.It is likley that pakistan ordered 6 AH-64D Apache Longbows.