Born in Parma, he worked first under Agostino Carracci in Bologna, then Annibale Carracci, in Rome. He worked with Annibale till 1609, then moving back to Parma. His best known work as an engraver was the Raphael's Bible series, which he created together with his fellow student, Giovanni Lanfranco. The images depict a series of frescoes by Raphael's workshop in the Vatican loggia. As a painter, his most important work is the frescoes the church of San Giovanni Evangelista, Reggio Emilia, which are based on Caravaggio's earliers works. He executed the decoration of the cupula and pendentives of the church of San Giovanni Evangelista in Reggio.
Though he often cooperated in fresco painting with Lanfranco, for example in Annibale designed series the San Diego Chapel in Giacomo degli Spagnuoli (1602-7) and in Palazzo Costaguti (Nessus and Deianeira), Badalocchio never received the same recognition as his peer. Nevertheless, he is recognized today as an important figure in bring the artistic styles of the Italian Baroque to northern Italy.