Eden was the second son of Sir Robert Eden, 3rd Baronet, of West Auckland, and the brother of William Eden, 1st Baron Auckland and Morton Eden, 1st Baron Henley and a relative of North Carolina Governor Charles Eden. He followed Horatio Sharpe as governor in 1769, and by 1775 his authority was totally usurped by the Annapolis Convention. He was created a Baronet, of Maryland in North America, in 1776. Eden married the Hon. Caroline daughter of Charles Calvert, 5th Baron Baltimore, in 1763. He died in September 1784 and was buried in Annapolis, Maryland. He was succeeded in the baronetcy by his eldest son, Frederick. Eden was an ancestor of 20th century British Prime Minister Anthony Eden.