Ancient city, Babylonia. It is located in central Iraq, southwest of present-day Baghdad, on the Euphrates River. From the 3rd millennium BC, Sippar was a centre of worship of the Sumerian sun god Shamash. It was subject to the 1st dynasty of Babylon, but little else is known about the city before 1174 BC, when it was sacked by the Elamites. It recovered from its defeat but was later captured by the Assyrians. Excavations, begun in the 1880s, have uncovered the remains of a large temple and thousands of religious and historic clay tablets.
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Two other Sippars are mentioned in inscriptions, one of them being "Sippar of Eden," which may have been an additional quarter of the city. It is possible that one of the "Sippars" might be identified with Akkad, the capital of the first Semitic Empire.
Xisuthros, the "Chaldean Noah", is said by Berossus to have buried the records of the antediluvian world here--possibly because the name of Sippar was supposed to be connected with sipru, "a writing". And according to Abydenus, Nebuchadnezzar excavated a great reservoir in the neighbourhood. Here too was the Babylonian camp in the reign of Nabonidos.
Pliny (Natural History 6.30.123) mentions a sect, or school of Chaldeans called the Hippareni. It is often assumed that this name refers to Sippar (especially because the other two schools mentioned seem to be named after cities as well: the Orcheni after Uruk, and the Borsippeni after Borsippa), but this is not universally accepted.