Singapore Changi Airport (Lapangan Terbang Changi Singapura; ; சிங்கப்பூர் சாங்கி விமானநிலையம) or simply Changi Airport, is a major aviation hub in Asia, particularly in the Southeast Asian region, and is the main airport in Singapore. Located in Changi on a site of , it is about north-east from the commercial centre.
The airport is operated by the Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore (CAAS) and is the home base of Singapore Airlines, Singapore Airlines Cargo, SilkAir, Tiger Airways, Jetstar Asia Airways, Valuair, and Jett8 Airlines Cargo. It is a hub for Garuda Indonesia and a secondary hub for Qantas, which uses Singapore as the main stopover point for flights on the Kangaroo Route between Australia and Europe, the latter being the largest foreign airline to operate from the airport with over two million passengers handled annually As of April 2008, there are about 4,340 weekly flights operated by 80 airlines to over 116 cities in 59 countries. An important contributor to the Singapore economy, 13,000 people are employed at the airport. The airport accounts for over S$4.5 billion in output.
In 2007, the airport handled a record 36,701,556 passengers, a 4.8% increase over the 2006 fiscal year. This made it the 19th busiest airport in the world and the fifth busiest in Asia by passenger traffic in 2007. In addition to being an important passenger traffic hub, the airport is one of the busiest cargo airports in the world, handling 1.89 million tonnes of cargo in 2007.. Incentives like the Air Hub Development Fund, first introduced in 2003, have proven effective in attracting airlines here. A new S$300 million fund to strengthen Changi's hub status will start in 2007 when the S$210 million fund expires in 2006. The new S$1.75 billion Terminal 3 opened on 9 January 2008, and Terminal 1 will be upgraded along the lines of the renovated Terminal 2, with the latter costing S$240 million. Changi has been courting both premium and budget travellers with the opening of a commercially important persons terminal by JetQuay and a S$45 million Budget Terminal in 2006.
Since its opening in 1981, the airport has made its mark in the aviation industry as a benchmark for service excellence, winning over 280 awards in a 20-year period from 1987 to 2007. and with 19 Best Airport awards won in 2007 alone Changi Airport's efforts to counter the onset of age include periodic physical upgrades to its existing terminals, building of new facilities and taking steps to provide a high level of customer service.
Growth in the global aviation transport was felt in Singapore, where Singapore International Airport at Paya Lebar, Singapore's third main civilian airport after Seletar Airport (main airport from 1930-37, still in use today for private aviation and limited commercial flights) and Kallang Airport (1937-55), was facing congestion problems. Opened in 1955 with a single runway and a small passenger terminal, its inability to cope with the rising traffic became critical by the 1970s, when passenger numbers rose dramatically from 300,000 to 1,700,000 passengers annually in 1970 and 4,000,000 annually in 1975.
The government had two options available: expand the existing airport at Paya Lebar or build a completely new airport at another location. After extensive study, a decision was made in 1972 to keep the airport at Paya Lebar as recommended by a British aviation consultant. Plans were created for the building of a second runway and an extensive redevelopment and expansion to the passenger terminal building. A year later, however, the plans were reviewed again due to the 1973 oil crisis.
Concerned that the existing airport was located in an area with potential for urban growth which would physically hem it in on all sides and limit its physical growth, the government subsequently decided in 1975 to build a new airport at the eastern tip of the main island at Changi at the site of Changi Air Base that was renamed from RAF Changi post-independence, and in turn renamed Changi Airbase (West), where the new airport would be easily expandable by land reclamation. However, the airport still had to be expanded during that period of time as there was an increase in traffic at that time. In addition, airplanes could fly over the sea, avoiding noise pollution issues within residential areas like those at Paya Lebar and helping to avoid disastrous consequences on the ground in the event of an air mishap. The airport in Paya Lebar was subsequently converted for military use as the Paya Lebar Airbase.
The first phase costing about S$1.3 billion opened on 1 July 1981 with the first flight, Singapore Airlines Flight 101, touching down at 0700 hours Zulu with 140 passengers from Kuala Lumpur. Officially opened with much fanfare five months later on 29 December 1981, the airport had 34 airlines operating 1,200 scheduled flights each week connecting Singapore to 67 cities in 43 countries. It ended its first year operations with 8.1 million passengers, 193,000 tonnes of air freight handled and 63,100 aircraft movements.
Despite the airport opening in 1981, some sections were not fully completed. The big aircraft hangar was only completed in 1982, and the first runway was fully completed only in 1983. It was then when the now defunct government department, the Public Works Department then decided to focus on the construction of the second runway on the reclaimed land east of the Terminal 1. The sections of phase 2 opened progressively over the next few years with the completion of a second runway as well as other facilities. In 1985, the construction work on Terminal 2 started, south of Terminal 1. Terminal 2 was completed in 1989, and was opened in November 1990 with its official opening on 1 June 1991 by Prime Minister Goh Chok Tong. The opening of the second terminal was way ahead of passenger demand.
The airport has a development policy of always building years ahead of demand to help to avoid congestion problems common in major airports and maintain high service standards. While the original master plan details plans for two passenger terminals, there have been provisions to provide for long-term expansion initiatives, including the allocation of space for a third terminal planned to have a physical configuration mirroring that of Terminal 2.
Construction of this terminal, Terminal 3, began in 1999, at an estimated cost of about S$1.75 billion. Originally planned for completion in 2006, the date was postponed by two years after global terrorism concerns delayed growth of air traffic in the airport. On 30 May 2006, a topping out ceremony for the terminal was conducted, and an open house was held from 12 November 2007 to 9 December 2007. Test flights were held from 12 November until 3 January where the baggage handling, check-in and ground handling systems were tested. The terminal became operational on 9 January 2008 with Singapore Airlines (SQ1) from San Francisco, California via Hong Kong being the first flight to arrive at the new terminal at 1156 local time (0356 UTC) and SQ318 at 1315 local time (0515 UTC) being the first departing flight. The terminal increases the airport's maximum passenger capacity annually by 22 million, bringing the total annual capacity up to 70 million passengers. Also being constructed is a new full-service nine-story Crowne Plaza Hotel immediately adjacent to Terminal 3.
Changing needs in the aviation industry led to reviews in the master plan, resulting in the decision to cater to the high-end as well as budget sectors of the air travel industry. Although the pioneering airport to conceptualise and construct a Budget Terminal in Asia, it became operational on 26 March 2006 a few days after the opening of a similar terminal in Kuala Lumpur, and was officially opened on 31 October 2006. A dedicated stand-alone "Commercially Important Person" (CIP) terminal operated by JetQuay, started operations on 15 August 2006 and officially opened on 29 September 2006. It is the first luxury airport terminal in Asia.
Even as new terminals are being built, the airport continuously upgrades and expands its existing terminals. Terminal 1 went through its first major refurbishment in 1995 at a cost of S$170 million, prior to the commencement of expansion works a year later to add 14 aerobridges at a cost of [S$420 million, which was completed in 1999. Terminal 2 was similarly expanded almost immediately after its opening in 1990, with the addition of two piers of aerobridges costing S$330 million and completed in 1996. In 2002, work commenced on the new Changi Airport Skytrain as well as the Terminal 2 building, and on 13 September 2006, the airport marked the completion of an extensive upgrade costing S$240 million in Terminal 2, which included an updated glass-fronted facade, interior decor, and terminal layout modifications.
With the impending arrival of the Airbus A380, the airport put into place modifications works costing S$60 million, which it has planned for since the late 1990s. These included the building of 19 gates capable of handling the large aircraft, eight of which are in Terminal 3. Baggage claim carousels, runways, and taxiways were expanded, and two new freighter aircraft stands and two remote aircraft parking stands built. 2 aircraft taxiway bridges spanning Airport Boulevard leading to the terminals also had shields installed on either side to shield the road from the jet blast. On 11 November 2005, the airport became the first outside Europe to receive the A380 for airport compatibility verification tests, and was the first in the world to have an operational triple-passenger loading bridge fit for trials.
Extensive upgrading works in Terminal 1 similar in scale to the recently completed works at Terminal 2 commenced in September 2007. Resurfacing works costing S$50m on its dual runways and older taxiways will also be conducted. Terminal 3 was tested in 2007 to prepare for its 2008 opening. Changi Airport will also continue to improve the security systems of Changi Airport such as access controls and surveillance systems to make the airport safer for travellers. Transport Minister Raymond Lim also added that the "software" of the airport had to be improved as well.
In 2006, a short runway was opened for Changi Airbase (East) on the site, an interim measure in preparation for its eventual expansion for passenger flights. It will be the first element in what may double the area of the existing airport in the next few decades.
On 6 March 2008, Minister of State for Transport Lim Hwee Hua informed Parliament that Terminal 4 would be a confirmed expansion to Changi Airport. Details have not been released yet, but there is speculation that the new terminal could be located next to the airport's third runway, which is currently used for Republic of Singapore Air Force jets. Mrs. Lim also added that the budget terminal, which has handled 2.9 million passengers since it first opened in March 2006, would be expanding at a cost of S$10m. It will add 7 more check-in counters and 3 additional boarding gates as the budget terminal prepares to serve up to 9 airlines later in 2008. Today, the budget terminal is connected to 20 cities in the region - up from 12 in 2006 - by two low-cost carriers which form about 10 percent of Changi's passenger traffic.
|Passenger Movements||8.1 million||15.6 million||32.4 million (2005)|
|Airfreight Movements||193,000 tonnes||623,800 tonnes||1.83 million tonnes (2005)|
|Country Links||43||53||57 (Jun 2006)|
|City Links||67||111||>180 (Jun 2006)|
|Scheduled Airlines||34||52||82 (Jun 2006)|
|Weekly Scheduled Flights||About 1,200||About 2,000||>4,100 (Jun 2006)|
|Passenger terminal buildings|
|Handling capacity||c. 70 million passengers|
|Parking bays||92 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||1 July 1981 (operational)|
29 December 1981 (official)
|Handling capacity||21 million passengers|
|Parking bays||29 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||22 November 1990 (operational)|
1 June 1991 (official)
|Handling capacity||23 million passengers|
|Parking bays||35 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||9 January 2008 (operational)|
25 July 2008 (official)
|Handling capacity||22 million passengers|
|Parking bays||28 (aerobridge)|
|Opened||To Be Confirmed|
|Floor area||To Be Confirmed}|
|Handling capacity||To Be Confirmed|
|Parking bays||To Be Confirmed|
|Opened||26 March 2006 (operational)|
31 October 2006 (official)
|Handling capacity||2.7 million passengers|
|Parking bays||10 (contact)|
|JetQuay (CIP Terminal)|
|Opened||15 August 2006 (operational)|
29 September 2006 (official)
Given limited land resources, Singapore Changi Airport was conceptualised to function as the country's primary airport for the foreseeable future without the need for relocation or the building of another airport when passenger figures increased. Long-term plans for the airport thus gave physical provisions in the form of reclaimed land nearly equal in size to that of the existing airport, with enough space for two more runways and at least two new passenger terminal buildings.
The master plan for the existing airport initially involved a dual-terminal and dual-runway configuration over two phases with provisions for another two passenger terminals in the near future. Phase 1 included the construction for the first passenger terminal, the first runway, 45 aircraft parking bays, support facilities and structures, including a large maintenance hangar, the first fire station, workshops and administrative offices, an airfreight complex, two cargo agents buildings, in-flight catering kitchens and an control tower. Construction for the second phase would commence immediately after the completion of Phase 1 and include the second runway, 23 new aircraft parking bays in addition to the existing 45 bays, a second fire station and a third cargo agent building.
A new parallel runway 02R/20L (named 01/19 when opened in 2004) was built to the east of 02C/20C, currently used only by Republic of Singapore Air Force aircraft as part of Changi Airbase (East). The new runway is expected to be extended and eventually be turned into a third runway for the airport in future expansion plans.
Singapore Changi Airport's oldest terminal operated as the sole terminal from its opening on 1 July 1981 right up till the opening of Terminal 2 nine years later. Configured in a H-shaped layout to maximise the number of aerobridges which may be built, it underwent two major upgrading works over its lifespan. A major refurbishment was completed in 1995 at a cost of S$170 million and work to extend two finger piers to add 14 aerobridges at a cost of S$420 million took place from 1996 to 1999. Today, the terminal spans an area of 280,020 m² and can accommodate a maximum passenger capacity of 21 million passengers a year.
Plans to launch a new round of upgrading were in the pipeline, with Takenaka Corporation winning the contract to conduct the works from May 2008 to 2011. Costing S$500 million, it will be the terminals' biggest overhaul to date, involving works on its facade and halls under a theme called "Tropical City". Once completed, it will be the final Terminal to be upgraded to be on par with the newest Terminal 3, and the recently upgraded Terminal 2.
Terminal 2 is split into four sections with gate numbers carrying the letter of their section. The terminal hosts a cinema and a Burger King as well as countless number of shops. the centrepiece is the indoor garden. The terminal also has an outdoor rooftop garden and a technology section showcasing the world's largest plasma screen. The carpets are green and the gate information is displayed on LCD screens. Security checks must be completed prior to entering the gate.
Terminal 3 became operational on 9 January 2008, increasing the airport's annual passenger capacity by 22 million. The terminal has 28 aerobridge gates, with eight capable of handling the Airbus A380. While the other 2 terminals uses separate waiting areas for different gates, Terminal 3 has common waiting areas for some of the gates.
Designed by CPG Corporation, with Skidmore, Owings and Merrill designing the roof feature and interior design by Woodhead Wilson, Terminal 3 departs from the largely utilitarian architecture in the first two terminals. Like other new airports in the region, it has a structure mainly made of glass, with big transparent spaces inside the terminal. However, unlike these newer airports, it incorporates "natural" features and "warm" tone extensively to balance the sterile feel of glass and steel. For example, the column is given a wood-like cladding and the floor of the terminal is mostly cream/ beige colour. The roof has been designed to allow natural light to enter the building, with 919 skylights. A -high "Green Wall" with hanging creepers and waterfall was incorporated to enhance the tropical feel. The Green Wall also helps to regulate the internal temperature of the terminal with the occasional misting.
Singapore Airlines operated the first flights into Terminal 3 on 9 January 2008, with flight SQ001 from San Francisco via Hong Kong arriving at 1150 hours to a welcome ceremony by Minister for Transport and Second Minister for Foreign Affairs, Lim Siang Keat Raymond and the chairman of CAAS, Liew Mun Leong. The first departure flight, SQ318, took off at 1250 hours bound for London-Heathrow. Since then, its regional and long-haul flights bound for North America (Except Houston), Europe (excluding Moscow), East Asia (excluding flights to Japan routed through Bangkok) and Oceania depart from the new terminal while all other flights depart from Terminal 2, becoming the first and only airline to operate from multiple terminals in Changi Airport. While the departure terminal is fixed depending on destination, the terminal to be used by each arriving flight has to be confirmed two hours prior to arrival, causing cases of confusion amongst the travelling public, although a CAAS spokesman said that the confusion has since been relatively mitigated due to greater public awareness of the arrangement.
Star Alliance carriers, which includes Singapore Airlines, are likely to move to Terminal 3 subsequently. Four airlines confirmed their move to the new terminal from 26 March 2008, although China Eastern Airlines and United Airlines began the move on the night of 25 March 2008. China Eastern Airlines's first arrival flight to Terminal 3, MU545, landed at 2126 hours from Shanghai-Pudong, while United Airlines's first Terminal 3 flight UA895 flew in from Atlanta via Chicago and Hong Kong at 2310 hours. UA803 soon followed from Washington DC via Tokyo-Narita at 2353 hours. On 26 March 2008, Qatar Airways flew its first Terminal 3 flight from Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta at 0120 hours on QR627, while Jet Airways's flight 9W12 arrived at 0725 hours from Mumbai. China Eastern Airlines flew its first departure flight, MU544, to Shanghai-Pudong at 0059 hours on 26 March 2008, Qatar Airways' QR627 to Doha at 0304 hours, United Airlines' UA896 to Atlanta via Hong Kong and Chicago at 0718 hours and Jet Airways' 9W15 to Chennai departed at 0932 hours. The move added 148 return flights weekly from Singapore to 12 destinations, namely Atlanta, Chennai, Chicago, Delhi, Doha, Hong Kong, Jakarta, Kunming, Mumbai, Shanghai, Tokyo and Washington DC, increasing the number of return flights at Terminal 3 to over 900 weekly and the total number of passengers handled to about 11 million annually.
CAAS was in talks to move other airlines to the Terminal, although several airlines expressed concern over the dedicated SIA passenger lounge and unique check-in system not open to other airlines to be introduced in Terminal 3. CAAS clarified that a common check-in system may be used by any airline in half of the Terminal space. CAAS announced that there has since been no further plans to move any airline, although it will consider requests from other airlines.
Changi Airport was the second in Asia (after Kuala Lumpur International Airport) to open a dedicated terminal catering to the budget traveller. The name of the Budget Terminal was decided as a result of a naming contest open to the public. The terminal is not included in the numbering scheme even though it is the third terminal to be opened and Terminal 3 is actually the fifth terminal opened at the airport.
In order to offer lower landing fees, handling fees and airport taxes, it cuts back on amenities such as aerobridges, elaborate physical structures and decorations in the passenger terminal building. Air conditioning, a range of duty-free shops and Food and Beverage outlets, and free internet terminals are available. There is no transfer facility at the Budget Terminal. Passengers who need to make transfers need to clear immigration, collect their luggage, clear customs, make their way to the main terminal by taking the free shuttle buses and check-in again with the respective airline.
With Changi-based Singapore Airlines being the launch customer for the Airbus A380, works to ensure full capability in handling the large aircraft was given priority in time for its introduction in October 2007. The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore spent S$60 million in upgrading the two existing terminals and airport infrastructure, including enlarged gate holdrooms, new finger piers, and extended baggage belt carousels from the normal to . With these new carousels in place, the airport does not expect embarking and disembarking passengers and baggage from the A380 to take longer than it does for Boeing 747-400s, which carry significantly fewer passengers. On 16 August 2005, Changi Airport unveiled the first of 11 specially-built gates capable of handling the giant aircraft. Costing S$15 million, the gates or 'fingers' enable passengers to get on the upper cabin of the new 555-seater aircraft directly from the gate hold rooms. The hold rooms themselves have been enlarged and appointed to cater for the larger number of passengers flying the A380s. Beside the 11 new gates at Terminal 1 and 2, eight more A380-capable gates were opened at Terminal 3 on 9 January 2008.
The airport has over of space spread between its three main terminals for shopping and eating outlets, with Terminal 3 having the largest amount of retail space at . Extensive upgrading work on existing retail areas since 2004 in Terminals 1 and 2 has increased sales 13.3% in the first half of 2005 year-on-year over 2004, and as much as 67% compared to the same period in 2003, with brands such as Prada, Gucci, Bulgari and Hermès opening outlets during this period. The first FIFA Official Store in the world was opened in Terminal 3, along with Asia's first Ferrari travel retail shop.
The designer airport is one of those anomalies where the phrase “I spent all my time in the airport” is likely to be a positive. From two different lounges with top-class 24 hour napping areas, showers and spa facilities, to hotel and pool amenities, this airport further excels itself with innovative activities such as its Singapore Tours (created for those in transit for up to 5 hours who are granted a special pass to leave the airport on one of four city tour options), Nature Trail (with six themed garden reserves) and comprehensive dining and entertainment options.
In terms of sales, the airport outstrips other shopping malls in Singapore, including those in top tourist spot Orchard Road. The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore derives 60% of its total annual revenue (over US$500 million in the year ending March 2005) from non-aeronautical sources, with 30% from commercial space rental and a percentage of sale receipts. Liquor and perfumes are particularly popular, accounting for over half of total retail sales, followed by watches and tobacco products. The airport enjoys "one of the highest concession revenues per passenger in the world" compared to other major international airports according to Jeffrey Loke, CAAS' assistant commercial director.
In addition to a wide array of duty-free shops and eating outlets, Changi Airport has six open-air garden areas. Open to customers of the airport, each garden represents a different group of plants: cacti, bamboo, heliconia, sunflower, fern and orchid. Changi Airport has numerous business centres located around the airport. Within the international transit area of the interconnected Terminals 1 and 2, internet and games facilities, prayer rooms, showers, spas, gym, swimming pool and a hotel are provided. Various lounge areas are provided, some including children's play areas or televisions showing news, movie and sport channels.
Ground handling services are handled by three companies: Singapore Airport Terminal Services (SATS), Changi International Airport Services (CIAS) and Swissport. SATS, a subsidiary of Singapore Airlines, is the dominant player with close to 80% of the market in the airport. CIAS was formed in 1981 by the Port of Singapore Authority and five airlines (Air France, China Airlines, Garuda Indonesia, KLM (Royal Dutch Airlines) and Lufthansa. It handles the remaining market share.
In the early 2000s, the government decided to introduce competition into the market by offering an additional license. Swissair's Swissport successfully won the license (valid for 10 years) and commenced operations on 2 March 2005. As Swissair folded and was subsequently taken over by Swiss International Air Lines, the latter became the company's first customer. Adam Air chose Swissport as its ground handler in 2005, while Tiger Airways followed suit in 2006. Other customers of Swissport include Northwest Airlines, Swiss World Cargo, Thai AirAsia and Cardig Air. Former customers of Swissport include Australian Airlines.
CIAS underwent restructuring when its shareholding was bought over by Dubai's Dnata group and Temasek Holdings, being relaunched in June 2005 with a new branding. Its security services were amalgamated into the new Temasek-owned Aetos Security Management.
The Civil Aviation Authority of Singapore manages the overall safety and security of the airport. The Airport Management Division of the CAAS manages the airport's security, while the Aviation Security Division oversees the airport's compliance with aviation security (AVSEC) policies, manages AVSEC-related projects, engages overseas partners and plans for business continuity in the event of a national emergency. Operationally, the airport's emergency and fire-fighting services are handled by the Airport Emergency Service Division of the CAAS Regulatory and International Group. The AES handles all instances of rescue and fire-fighting within the airport premises as well as in surrounding waters through its specialists operating from two main fire stations, a Fire Sub-Station and a Sea Rescue Base around the airport.
The airport's security comes under the purview of the Airport Police Division of the Singapore Police Force. Assisting the state organisations are the auxiliary police forces including Aetos Security Management, Certis CISCO and SATS Security Services, of which Aetos and SATS Security Services are affiliated to the ground handling companies of Changi International Airport Services and Singapore Airport Terminal Services respectively. These officers man check-in counters to screen luggage, control movements into restricted areas, and so forth. CAAS has engaged the auxiliary police to enforce airside regulations since 8 February 2007, first engaging Certis CISCO followed by Aetos Security from 16 July 2007. On 29 April 2008, CAAS signed its biggest single security contract by engaging Certis CISCO to provide security services at Changi Airport, as well as Seletar Airport, Changi Airfreight Centre, and the Singapore Air Traffic Control Centre. The $360 million five-year contract would commence from 1 April 2008 with an option to extend for another five years, and will involve the deployment of about 2,200 Certis Cisco personnel, including 900 armed Auxiliary Police Officers and 1,300 unarmed aviation security officers to perform taskes including scanning checked baggage, controlling access to restricted areas, and screening passengers before they board their aircraft.
Since the September 11, 2001 attacks and naming of the airport as a terrorism target by the Jemaah Islamiyah, the airport's security has been stepped up. Roving patrol teams consisting of two soldiers and a police officer, armed with assault rifles or sub-machine guns, patrol the terminals at random intervals. Officers from the Gurkha Contingent are also deployed to patrol the transit areas of the terminal buildings. These measures come at a cost partly borne by travellers in the form of a "passenger security service charge," imposed since 2002. It is levied at S$6 on passengers in both main terminals and the Budget Terminal. In 2005, it became the first airport outside the United States to win the Airport Security Report's "Excellence in Airport Security Award".
In 2005, an upgrade in screening technology and rising security concerns led to luggage-screening processes being conducted behind closed-doors, as opposed to them being done just before check-in previously within public view. Carry-on luggage and persons screening are conducted at the individual departure gates, while check-in luggage are screened in the backrooms and secured before loading. Plans are in place to install over 400 cameras around the airport to monitor passenger activity around the clock and check on suspicious parcels and activity. Tenders to incorporate such a system was called in late September 2005. A second perimeter fence to prevent unauthorised persons is due for construction, to be completed by 2008. The Airport Police plans to introduce a biometric identification system for access into restricted areas.
In view of the 2006 transatlantic aircraft plot, security screening checks have been stepped up on passengers and their hand-carry luggage, as well as checked-in luggage on flights bound for destinations in the United Kingdom and the United States from Changi.
|Top destinations (as at Feb 2008)|
|By flight frequencies (weekly one-way)|
After recovering from a drop in passenger traffic as a result of the severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) epidemic in 2003, the airport saw rapid growth in traffic which hit the 30-million mark for the first time a year later in 2004. A monthly record was set in June 2006 with 2,980,106 passengers handled, an increase of 9.1% in its first six months of operations for 2006. The Budget Terminal handled about 657,000 passengers by 26 October 2006, six months after its opening in March, and constituted 11.3% of total flights in October 2006 compared to 9.6% in April the same year. The terminal handled its one-millionth passenger at the end of the 2006. Transit passenger traffic accounted for about 17% of total passengers handled in 2002, totalling over five million of which 400,000 contribute to the local tourism sector by travelling out of the airport.
The airport is expecting to handle a total of 50 million passengers by 2012, during which time the opening of Integrated Resorts and other major events in Singapore, and the phased liberalisation of the ASEAN aviation sector would help to increase tourism arrivals by about 35%.
Relying on extensive use of Information Technology, the Air Cargo Division introduced various IT systems such as the Air Cargo EDI System (ACES), the Advance Clearance for Courier and Express Shipments System (ACCESS) and the Electronic Payment and Invoicing for Cargo (EPIC) to ease customs-clearance procedures and movement. It pioneered the TradeNet System, allowing for traders to conduct trade declarations over the Internet and accelerating the approval process by controlling authorities. TradeNet will be linked to the country-wide Integrated Trade and Logistics IT platform.
|Destinations by Region|
|Adam Air||Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta||1||March 2008||Air certificate revoked.|
|Aeroflot||Delhi, Kuala Lumpur, Moscow-Sheremetyevo||1||March 2001||Poor yields on sector. Plans to resume flights by end 2001 did not materialise.|
|Air Bagan||Yangon||1||Sanctions against airline by the United States.|
|Air Canada||London-Heathrow, Montreal, Mumbai, Toronto-Pearson||2||January 1991||Currently codeshares with Singapore Airlines.|
|Air China||Beijing, Chengdu, Xiamen||1||—||Suspension ended 1 January 1994.|
|Air France||Paris-Charles de Gaulle||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 20 July 1964. Moved from Terminal 2 to 1 in November 2004.|
|Air Hong Kong||Hong Kong||Freight||—|
|Air India||Ahmedabad ,Delhi, Mumbai||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 16 July 1954.|
|Air Macau||Macau||1||Poor loads on sector.|
|Air Madagascar||Antananarivo, Reunion||1||Poor loads on sector.|
|Air Mauritius||Kuala Lumpur, Mauritius||1||—||Resumed on 2 August 2003|
|Air New Zealand||Auckland||2||Commenced operations to Singapore since 6 April 1966, now codeshares with Singapore Airlines.|
|Air Niugini||Port Moresby||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 5 July 1979.|
|Air Sahara||Delhi||1||Airline merged with Jet Airways.|
|Air Seychelles||Mahé||1||—||Suspended from 3 April to 6 May 2003 due to SARS|
|Air Zimbabwe||Beijing, Guangzhou, Harare||1||—|
|Air-India Express||Chennai, Kolkata, Tiruchirapalli||1||—|
|Alitalia||Rome-Fiumicino||1||Now codeshares with KLM via Amsterdam.|
|All Nippon Airways||Tokyo-Narita||2||—||Moved to Terminal 2 since 1 October 2008.|
|Angel Airlines||1||All passenger operations suspended.|
|Asiana Airlines (part)||Seoul-Incheon||1||—|
|Asiana Airlines (part)||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Manila, Penang, Seoul-Incheon||Freight||—|
|Australian Airlines||Cairns||1||Airline merged into Jetstar International and half of Qantas, route transferred.|
|Austrian Airlines||Melbourne, Vienna||2||March 2007||Suspension resumed 3 June 2004, now codeshares with Singapore Airlines.|
|Bangkok Airways||Koh Samui||1||—|
|Biman Bangladesh Airlines||Dhaka||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 6 April 1977.|
|Bouraq Indonesia Airlines||Surabaya||1||July 2005||First suspended in 1997, resumed on 20 December 1999; terminated when company liquidated.|
|British Airways||London-Heathrow, Sydney||1||—||Commenced mail operations to Singapore as Imperial Airways on 22 December 1933 and passenger operations since April 1935 via Penang.|
|Canadian Airlines||1||Merged with Air Canada.|
|Cargolux||Amman, Auckland, Baku, Chennai, Damascus, Kuala Lumpur, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, Melbourne||Freight||—|
|Cathay Pacific (part)||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Colombo, Hong Kong||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 1947.|
|Cathay Pacific (part)||Hong Kong||Freight||—|
|Cebu Pacific||Cebu, Davao [begins December 4], Manila, Manila-Clark [begins November 9]||Budget||—||Suspended January 2003, relaunched 31 August 2006|
|China Airlines (part)||Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taoyuan||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 5 October 1967.|
|China Airlines (part)||Taipei-Taoyuan||Freight||—|
|China Eastern Airlines (part)||Kunming, Shanghai-Pudong||3||—||Moved to Terminal 3 since 25 March 2008.|
|China Eastern Airlines (part)||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Shanghai-Pudong||Freight||—|
|China Southern Airlines||Guangzhou, Shenyang||1||—|
|China Southwest Airlines||Chengdu||1||Merged with Air China, route transferred.|
|China Yunnan Airlines||Kunming||1||Merged with China Eastern Airlines, route transferred.|
|EgyptAir||Cairo||1||Currently codeshares with Singapore Airlines.|
|Emirates Airline||Auckland, Brisbane, Colombo, Dubai, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Melbourne||1||—|
|Emirates SkyCargo||Bangalore, Chennai, Dubai||Freight|
|Etihad Airways||Abu Dhabi, Brisbane||2||—|
|EVA Air (part)||Taipei-Taoyuan||1||—|
|EVA Air (part)||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Ho Chi Minh City, Penang, Taipei-Taoyuan||Freight||—|
|Evergreen International Airlines||Freight|
|FedEx Express||Anchorage, Cebu, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Memphis, Newark, Osaka-Kansai, Penang, San Francisco, Shanghai-Pudong, Subic, Tokyo-Narita||Freight||—|
|Finnair||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Helsinki||1||Low loads on sector.|
|First Cambodia Airlines||1||Financial problems.|
|Garuda Indonesia||Beijing, Chennai (starting 1 November 2008), Denpasar/Bali, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Medan, Pekanbaru, Semarang, Shanghai-Pudong, Surabaya||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 1966.|
|Gulf Air||Bahrain, Sydney||1||Restructuring of company.|
|Hainan Airlines||Haikou||1||Plans to restart flights in December 2004 did not materialise; currently Charter flights only.|
|Indian Airlines||Bangalore, Chennai||1||—|
|Japan Airlines (part)||Kuala Lumpur, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 8 May 1958.|
|Japan Airlines (part)||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Nagoya-Centrair, Tokyo-Narita||Freight||—|
|Jat Airways||Belgrade, Dubai, Melbourne, Sydney||1||UN sanctions on Yugoslavia; never resumed flights.|
|Jatayu Airlines||1||Air certificate revoked.|
|Jet Airways||Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai||3||—||Moved to Terminal 3 since 26 March 2008.|
|Jetstar Airways||Cairns, Darwin, Melbourne , Perth [begins December 2]||1||—|
|Jetstar Asia Airways||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Ho Chi Minh City, Hong Kong, Kuala Lumpur, Manila, Macau, Phnom Penh, Siem Reap, Taipei-Taoyuan, Yangon||1||—|
|Jett8 Airlines Cargo||Dubai, Hong Kong, Luxembourg, Manchester||Freight||—|
|Kitty Hawk International Airlines||Freight|
|KLM (part)||Amsterdam||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 1927 (mail) and 3 May 1933 (passenger).|
|KLM (part)||Amsterdam, Dubai, Kuala Lumpur, Penang||Freight||—|
|Korean Air (part)||Seoul-Incheon||1||—|
|Korean Air (part)||Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Manila, Seoul-Incheon||Freight||—|
|Kuwait Airways||Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Kuwait||1||Maintained cargo services|
|Lauda Air||Vienna||1||Route transferred to Austrian Airlines.|
|Lion Air||Denpasar/Bali, Ho Chi Minh City, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta||1||—|
|LOT Polish Airlines||Warsaw||1||Codeshares with Singapore Airlines since 30 October 2005.|
|Lufthansa||Frankfurt, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Munich||2||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 4 April 1965|
|Lufthansa Cargo (part)||Bahrain, Delhi, Leipzig/Halle||Freight||—|
|Malaysia Airlines||Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Langkawi, Penang||2||—||Commenced operations in Singapore as Malayan Airways on 2 April 1947.|
|Merpati Nusantara Airlines||Bandung||1||Resumed on 30 April 2005.|
|Mihin Lanka||Colombo||1||—||Suspended all flights|
|Myanmar Airways International||Yangon||1||Now Codeshares with Jetstar Asia Airways.|
|Nepal Airlines||Kathmandu, Kuala Lumpur||1||Suspended till 31 March 2003.|
|Nippon Cargo Airlines||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita||Freight||—|
|Northwest Airlines||Tokyo-Narita||1||April 1989||—|
|NWA Cargo||Anchorage, Los Angeles, Tokyo-Narita||Freight||—|
|Olympic Airways||Athens||2||Shifted all operations to Bangkok due to high costs in Singapore.|
|Pakistan International Airlines||Islamabad, Karachi, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore||1||July 2007||Commenced operations to Singapore since 3 November 1972, suspension ended on 28 June 2005.|
|Pan American World Airways||Hong Kong||1||Commenced operations to Singapore since May 1941 from San Francisco via Manila. Route sold to United Airlines.|
|Philippine Airlines||Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Manila||2||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 1 November 1965.|
|Qantas||Adelaide, Brisbane, Denpasar/Bali, Frankfurt, London-Heathrow, Melbourne, Perth, Sydney||1||—||Commenced mail operations to Singapore since 26 February 1935 from Darwin and passenger services from Brisbane on 17 April 1935.|
|Qatar Airways||Doha, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta||3||—||Moved to Terminal 3 since 26 March 2008.|
|Royal Air Cambodge||1||Liquidation.|
|Royal Brunei Airlines||Bandar Seri Begawan||2||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 14 May 1975.|
|Royal Jordanian||Ammam||1||Late 1990s||Financial reasons, but considering resuming in 2008.|
|Royal Khmer Airlines||Phnom Penh, Siem Reap||1|
|Saudi Arabian Airlines||Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Jeddah, Riyadh||1||—|
|Scandinavian Airlines System||Copenhagen||1||Commenced operations to Singapore since 4 November 1967, now codeshares with Thai Airways International via Bangkok|
|Shandong Airlines||Qingdao, Shenzhen||1|
|Shanghai Airlines Cargo||Ho Chi Minh City, Shanghai-Pudong||Freight||—|
|SilkAir||Balikpapan, Cebu, Chengdu, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Coimbatore, Da Nang, Davao, Dili, Kaohsiung, Kathmandu, Kochi, Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur [from 26 October 2008], Kuching, Kunming, Langkawi, Manado, Mataram, Medan, Palembang, Phnom Penh, Phuket, Shenzhen, Siem Reap, Solo, Surabaya, Thiruvananthapuram, Xiamen, Yangon||2||—||Operated as Tradewinds Airlines until 1 April 1992. Flights to Dili are scheduled weekly charters by AustAsia Airlines|
|Singapore Airlines (part)||Departure destinations: Abu Dhabi, Ahmedabad, Amritsar, Bandar Seri Begawan, Bangalore, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Cairo, Cape Town, Chennai, Colombo, Denpasar/Bali, Delhi, Dhaka, Dubai, Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City, Houston-Intercontinental, Hyderabad, Istanbul-Atatürk, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Jeddah, Johannesburg, Karachi, Kolkata, Kuala Lumpur, Lahore, Malé, Manila, Moscow-Domodedovo, Mumbai, Penang, Riyadh [starts 14 December], Tokyo-Narita [SQ632 only]||2||—||Commenced operations in Singapore as Malayan Airways on 2 April 1947. Aircraft will arrive at Terminal 2 if its next outbound destination is to any of the destinations listed here.|
|Singapore Airlines (part)||Departure destinations: Adelaide, Amsterdam, Athens, Auckland, Barcelona, Beijing, Brisbane, Christchurch, Copenhagen, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Manchester, Melbourne, Milan-Malpensa, Nagoya-Centrair, Nanjing, New York-JFK, Newark, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Perth, Rome-Fiumicino, San Francisco, Seoul-Incheon, Shanghai-Pudong, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tokyo-Narita [except SQ632], Vancouver, Zürich||3||—||Commenced operations in Singapore as Malayan Airways on 2 April 1947. Aircraft will arrive at Terminal 3 if its next outbound destination is to any of the destinations listed here.|
|Singapore Airlines Cargo||Adelaide, Amsterdam, Anchorage, Auckland, Bangalore, Brussels, Chennai, Chicago-O'Hare, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Delhi, Dubai, Frankfurt, Hanoi, Hong Kong, Johannesburg, Kolkata, Leipzig/Halle, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Macau, Melbourne, Mumbai, Nairobi, Nanjing, Osaka-Kansai, Shanghai-Pudong, Sharjah, Sydney, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita, Xiamen||Freight||—|
|South African Airways||Johannesburg||1||Now codeshares with Singapore Airlines.|
|SriLankan Airlines||Colombo||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 14 September 1975|
|Swiss International Air Lines||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Zürich||1||—|
|Swissair||Bangkok-Don Mueang, Zürich||1||Commenced operations to Singapore since 1 April 1969, now liquidated with route restored by Swiss International Air Lines.|
|Thai AirAsia||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Phuket||1||—|
|Thai Airways International||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi||1||—||Commenced operations to Singapore since 5 May 1960.|
|Tiger Airways||Bangalore, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chennai, Chiang Mai, Darwin, Guangzhou, Hanoi, Haikou, Ho Chi Minh City, Krabi, Kuala Lumpur, Manila-Clark, Macau, Padang, Perth, Phuket, Shenzhen, Xiamen||Budget||—|
|TNT Airways||Liege, Shanghai-Pudong||Freight||—|
|Transaero||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Denpasar/Bali, Moscow-Domodedovo||1||—|
|Tri-MG Intra Asia Airlines||Jakarta-Halim||Freight||—|
|Union des Transports Aériens||Paris||1||Route transferred to Air France.|
|United Airlines||Chicago-O'Hare, Hong Kong, Tokyo-Narita, Washington-Dulles||3||—||Route via Hong Kong purchased from Pan American World Airways since 22 April 1985 and relaunched in February 1986. Moved to Terminal 3 since 25 March 2008|
|United Parcel Service||Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Cologne, Dubai, Guangzhou, Hong Kong, Manila-Clark, Mumbai, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan||Freight||—|
|Valuair||Denpasar/Bali, Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta, Medan, Surabaya||1||—|
|Vietnam Airlines||Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City||1||—|
|Xiamen Airlines||Fuzhou, Hangzhou, Xiamen||1||—|
|Yangtze River Express||Nanning, Shanghai-Pudong||Freight||2007|
While configured in a compact configuration such that the three main passenger terminal buildings are sited adjacent to each other, allowing for travellers to venture between terminals on foot, a short people-mover system was added to facilitate quicker and more convenient transfers. This system is being replaced by a newer system, which will connect the three main terminals in 2007 and will introduce greater security features by separating checked-in passengers from the general public on distinct tracks. This rail system is not extended to the Budget Terminal, which is served by free shuttle buses to minimise operational costs.
The Changi Airport Skytrain operates between Terminals 1, 2 and 3, with a total of seven stations. The trains have separate cars for air-side (transit) and land-side (public) passengers. Initially built in the early 1990s as a shuttle between Terminals 1 and 2 using Bombardier CX-100 cars, the system was revamped to use the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Crystal Mover in 2006 and extended to Terminal 3 in 2007. The service is free of charge and operates between 5:30 am and 2:30 am daily. Transportation is also provided to passengers and visitors between Terminal 2 and the Budget Terminal in the form of free shuttle buses. Free buses are also deployed to run every 20 minutes during the non-operational hours of the Skytrain; that is, from 0230 to 0530 hours between all four terminals.
The airport is connected to the Mass Rapid Transit (MRT) network, with Changi Airport Station located underground between Terminal 2 and Terminal 3 and directly accessible from both terminals. A direct, one-train service to the downtown and western parts of Singapore was initially in operation when the station opened on 8 February 2002 (then accessible only via Terminal 2). This was replaced by the current shuttle service between Changi Airport Station and Tanah Merah Station on 22 July 2003, when it was found that few passengers actually use this route, compared to the number of commuters who need to travel from the city to Tampines and Pasir Ris. Cross-platform transfers are therefore necessary at Tanah Merah Station to connect to the rest of the network. Trips to downtown Singapore typically cost S$1.90 on a standard ticket or adult EZ-Link card, taking about 27 minutes to complete - excluding waiting and transfer times. These services are in operation from 0531 (0559 on Sundays/public holidays) and 1118 hours daily.
Buses were the main transport mode for cost-conscious travellers and local airport staff until the opening of the Changi Airport MRT Station due to their relative affordability and reliability. Services operated by SBS Transit and SMRT Buses use bus terminals in the basement level of the three main terminals, as well as a bus-stop along Airport Boulevard which is connected by a sheltered walkway to the Budget Terminal, making a loop starting from Terminal 3 to Terminal 1, 2, and then the Budget Terminal, and back to their destination of origin.
|SBS Transit Trunk Services|
|24||Ang Mo Kio Bus Interchange||Euro IV|
|27||Hougang Central Bus Interchange||Euro IV|
|34||Punggol Bus Interchange||Euro IV|
|36||Tomlinson Road (Loop)||Euro IV|
|53||Bishan Bus Interchange||Euro IV|
|SMRT Buses Trunk Services|
|858||Woodlands Regional Bus Interchange|
Taxi stands are within the arrival halls of the three main terminals and just outside the Budget Terminal. Prices are the fare shown on meter, plus a S$5.00 surcharge (Friday-Sunday, 1700 to midnight) or S$3.00 surcharge (all other times) for trips leaving the airport. Limousine-taxi services are available at the limousine-taxi counters in the arrival halls of Terminals 1, 2 & 3, at a fare of S$45.00 for a Mercedes Cab and S$50.00 for a Maxi Cab, excluding surcharges. Seven-seater Maxi Cabs are used on the airport shuttle service that goes to anywhere within the Central Business District and to hotels in Singapore, except hotels in Changi Village and Sentosa Island, with bookings at the counters in the arrival hall. The fare paid to the driver, in cash, is S$9.00 per adult and S$6.00 per child. The service leaves every 30 minutes from 6:00 am - 6:00 pm, every 15 minutes from 6:15 pm - midnight and every 30 minutes from 12:30 am - 2:00 am. Finally, car-rental services are provided at the car-rental counters in Terminal 2.