Sind may have been the site of the subcontinent's earliest civilization (see Indus valley civilization). The region was taken (5th cent. B.C.) by Darius I of Persia, invaded (325 B.C.) by Alexander the Great, annexed (c.3d cent. B.C.) by the Maurya empire, overrun (165 B.C.) by the Huns, and ruled (1st-2d cent. A.D.) by the Kushan dynasty. The Arab invaders of Sind in 711 were the first permanent Muslim settlers on the subcontinent; Sind remained under direct or nominal Arab rule until the 11th cent., when it passed to the Muslim Turkic Ghaznavids. Arab religious, social, and cultural influences remain strong. Although briefly incorporated into the Mughal empire by Akbar (who was born in Sind), the region remained for centuries under local Muslim dynasties. Emirs of Sind, who were of Baluch descent, held power in the late 18th and early 19th cent. until Sir Charles Napier, the British general, defeated them in 1843. The British made Karachi the capital and administered Sind as part of the Bombay presidency until 1937, when it became an autonomous province. After Pakistan became independent in 1947, Karachi was made the national capital, and Sind's capital was shifted to Hyderabad. From 1955 to 1970, Sind was part of West Pakistan prov.; it became a separate province again in 1970, with Karachi the capital. Sind became the new home of hundreds of thousands of Muslims displaced by the 1947 partition.
Province (pop., 2003 est.: 34,240,000), southeastern Pakistan. It is bordered by Balochistan and Punjab provinces, India, and, to the south, by the Arabian Sea. The capital is Karachi. The centre of the ancient Indus civilization, it was annexed to the Persian Achaemenian Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 325 BC, it was part of the Mauryan empire in the 3rd century BC. It fell to the Arabs circa AD 711. In the 16th–17th centuries it was ruled by the Mughals. It came under British control in 1843. After Pakistan's independence, Sind was integrated into the province of West Pakistan but in 1970 was reestablished as a separate province. It is arid except in the irrigated Indus River valley, where cotton, wheat, and rice are grown and where the population is concentrated.
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The first college established by this Board was the Rishi Dayaram National College or "R.D. National College, more commonly known as the "National College", located on the Linking Road in Bandra, a suburb of Bombay.
The R.D. National College was originally founded in 1922 in the city of Hyderabad in the then Sind Division of the Bombay Presidency (i.e. province) of British India by Hindu Sindis under the inspiration of Dr. Annie Besant and Rishi Dayaram Gidumal, a Sindi Hindu religious leader.
The HSNCB has founded and operates several other educational institutions in the Indian Union:
The HSNC Board also operates the following schools:
The Board presently consists of the following persons:
Although not operated by the HSNC Board, the following institutions have been founded by and are operated by frequently the same set of persons belonging to the Sindhi Hindu refugee community in Bombay: