Sind

Sind

[sind]
Sind, province (1998 pop. 29,991,161), c.50,000 sq mi (129,500 sq km), SE Pakistan, roughly coextensive with the lower Indus River valley and bounded by India on the east and south and by the Arabian Sea on the southwest. Karachi is the capital. The province takes its name from the river, which was known as the Sindhu. Despite some hilly and desert areas, it consists mainly of the alluvial plain and delta of the Indus River. Hot and arid, the region depends almost exclusively on irrigation for agriculture. Watered by the great Sukkur and Kotri barrages, it supports wheat, rice, millet, cotton, oilseed, sugarcane, fruits, and some tobacco. There are also sheep and cattle breeding and poultry farming. The great majority of the population engages in agriculture, but Hyderabad is a leading Pakistani industrial center. The region is noted for handicrafts, especially lacquer ware, mirror embroidery, and tile work. Fishing is important in coastal areas. The chief language is Sindhi.

Sind may have been the site of the subcontinent's earliest civilization (see Indus valley civilization). The region was taken (5th cent. B.C.) by Darius I of Persia, invaded (325 B.C.) by Alexander the Great, annexed (c.3d cent. B.C.) by the Maurya empire, overrun (165 B.C.) by the Huns, and ruled (1st-2d cent. A.D.) by the Kushan dynasty. The Arab invaders of Sind in 711 were the first permanent Muslim settlers on the subcontinent; Sind remained under direct or nominal Arab rule until the 11th cent., when it passed to the Muslim Turkic Ghaznavids. Arab religious, social, and cultural influences remain strong. Although briefly incorporated into the Mughal empire by Akbar (who was born in Sind), the region remained for centuries under local Muslim dynasties. Emirs of Sind, who were of Baluch descent, held power in the late 18th and early 19th cent. until Sir Charles Napier, the British general, defeated them in 1843. The British made Karachi the capital and administered Sind as part of the Bombay presidency until 1937, when it became an autonomous province. After Pakistan became independent in 1947, Karachi was made the national capital, and Sind's capital was shifted to Hyderabad. From 1955 to 1970, Sind was part of West Pakistan prov.; it became a separate province again in 1970, with Karachi the capital. Sind became the new home of hundreds of thousands of Muslims displaced by the 1947 partition.

or Sindh

Province (pop., 2003 est.: 34,240,000), southeastern Pakistan. It is bordered by Balochistan and Punjab provinces, India, and, to the south, by the Arabian Sea. The capital is Karachi. The centre of the ancient Indus civilization, it was annexed to the Persian Achaemenian Empire in the 6th century BC. Conquered by Alexander the Great in 325 BC, it was part of the Mauryan empire in the 3rd century BC. It fell to the Arabs circa AD 711. In the 16th–17th centuries it was ruled by the Mughals. It came under British control in 1843. After Pakistan's independence, Sind was integrated into the province of West Pakistan but in 1970 was reestablished as a separate province. It is arid except in the irrigated Indus River valley, where cotton, wheat, and rice are grown and where the population is concentrated.

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The Hyderabad (Sind) National Collegiate Board

The HSNCB was founded by refugees from the British India province of Sind which became part of the Muslim state of Pakistan carved out as part of the Partition of British India in 1947.

The first college established by this Board was the Rishi Dayaram National College or "R.D. National College, more commonly known as the "National College", located on the Linking Road in Bandra, a suburb of Bombay.

The R.D. National College was originally founded in 1922 in the city of Hyderabad in the then Sind Division of the Bombay Presidency (i.e. province) of British India by Hindu Sindis under the inspiration of Dr. Annie Besant and Rishi Dayaram Gidumal, a Sindi Hindu religious leader.

After Partition, Mr. K.M. Kundnani, who had been its principal, re-founded it in Bandra in 1949, with critical assistance from Advocate H.G. Advani.

Colleges

The HSNCB has founded and operates several other educational institutions in the Indian Union:

Schools

The HSNC Board also operates the following schools:

  • The R.K. Academy in Colaba, Bombay
  • The Valiram Bherumal Melwani Model High School in Grant Road, Bombay
  • The Master Sitaldas Chanshyamdas Punwani Tutorial High School in Grant Road, Bombay
  • The Master Tutorial English Primary School in Grant Road, Bombay
  • The Sind Model English Primary School in Grant Road, Bombay
  • The Sri Gangaram Sind National Higher Secondary School in Ulhasnagar
  • The Jai Hind Academy Higher Secondary School in Ulhasnagar

Board members (as on August 13, 2007)

The Board presently consists of the following persons:

Famous Alumni

Related activities / institutions

Although not operated by the HSNC Board, the following institutions have been founded by and are operated by frequently the same set of persons belonging to the Sindhi Hindu refugee community in Bombay:

Source

  • The Nationalite, Prospectus of the R.D. National College, Bandra for the Academic year 2005-2006

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