The original station, simply known as "Silkstone", was opened on 1 November 1855 and rebuilt on the same site in the last quarter of the 19th century in the "Double Pavilion" style favoured by the Manchester, Sheffield and Lincolnshire Railway. The former station master's house remains towards the Penistone end of the present platform. This is now a private residence.
The present station is the third to serve the village.
The station is built over the tunnel through which passed the Silkstone Wagonway, an early rail link from the coal pits in Silkstone Common, via a rope hauled incline and the village of Silkstone to the Barnsley Canal. Little can be seen from the station but looking at the wall opposite the platform a small rise in the coping stones is detectable which coincides with the arch of the tunnel.
The station closed in 1959 with the withdrawal of the Penistone - Barnsley - Doncaster stopping services, but was re-opened in 1984, after Sheffield - Huddersfield services had been diverted via the line.