Any of a series of inorganic compounds of silicon and hydrogen with covalent bonds and the general chemical formula Simath.nH(2math.n + 2). Silanes are structural analogs of saturated hydrocarbons (see saturation; alkane) but are much less stable. All burn or explode when exposed to air and react readily with halogens or hydrogen halides to form halogenated silanes and with olefins to form alkylsilanes, products used as water repellents and as starting materials for silicones.
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Silane is a chemical compound with chemical formula SiH4. It is the silicon analogue of methane. At room temperature, silane is a gas, and is pyrophoric — it undergoes spontaneous combustion in air, without the need for external ignition. However, the difficulties in explaining the available (often contradictory) combustion data are ascribed to the fact that silane itself is stable and that the natural formation of larger silanes during production, as well as the sensitivity of combustion to impurities such as moisture and to the catalytic effects of container surfaces causes its pyrophoricity. Above 420°C, silane decomposes into silicon and hydrogen; it can therefore be used in the chemical vapor deposition of silicon.
More generally, a silane is any silicon analogue of an alkane hydrocarbon. Silanes consist of a chain of silicon atoms covalently bound to hydrogen atoms. The general formula of a silane is SinH2n+2. Silanes tend to be less stable than their carbon analogues because the Si–Si bond has a strength slightly lower than the C–C bond. Oxygen decomposes silanes easily, because the silicon-oxygen bond is quite stable.
There exists a regular nomenclature for silanes. Each silane's name is the word silane preceded by a numerical prefix (di, tri, tetra, etc.) for the number of silicon atoms in the molecule. Thus Si2H6 is disilane, Si3H8 is trisilane, and so forth. There is no need for a prefix for one; SiH4 is simply silane. Silanes can also be named like any other inorganic compound; in this naming system, silane is named silicon tetrahydride. However, with longer silanes, this becomes cumbersome.
Branched silanes are possible. The radical ·SiH3 is termed silyl, ·Si2H5 is disilanyl, and so on. Trisilane with a silyl group attached to the middle silicon is named silyltrisilane. The nomenclature parallels that of alkyl radicals.
For classroom demonstrations, silane can be produced (temporarily) by heating sand with magnesium powder, then pouring the mixture into a 20% dilution of hydrochloric acid. The magnesium silicide reacts with the acid to produce silane gas, which combusts on contact with air and produces tiny explosions.
Silane is also used in supersonic combustion ramjets to initiate combustion in the compressed air stream.
Silane and similar compounds containing Si-H-bonds are used as reducing agents in organic and organometallic chemistry.
Silane may be used to fabricate a super-compressed, superconducting compound.
"Amino Acid Group-Modified Organopolysiloxane and Silane, Amino Acid Group-Containing Compound, and Production Method Thereof" in Patent Application Approval Process
Dec 25, 2012; By a News Reporter-Staff News Editor at Life Science Weekly -- A patent application by the inventors MORIYA, Hiroyuki...