Max Reinhardt (September 9, 1873 - October 30, 1943) was an Austrian (later naturalised American) theatre and film director and actor.
He was born as Maximilian Goldmann
, of Jewish
ancestry, in Baden bei Wien
. From 1902 until the beginning of Nazi
rule in 1933, he worked as a director at various theaters
. From 1905 to 1930 he managed the Deutsches Theater
("German Theatre") in Berlin and, in addition, the Theater in der Josefstadt
from 1924 to 1933. By employing powerful staging
techniques, and harmonising stage design
, Reinhardt introduced new dimensions into German theatre.
The Max Reinhardt Seminar in Vienna, which is arguably the most important German-language acting school, was installed implementing his ideas. Siegfried Jacobsen wrote Max Reinhardt in 1910.
In 1920, Reinhardt established the Salzburg Festival with Richard Strauss and Hugo von Hofmannsthal, notably directing an annual production of the morality play Everyman about God sending Death to summon a representative of mankind for judgement.
After the Anschluss of Austria to Nazi-governed Germany in 1938, he emigrated first to England, then to the United States, where he had already successfully directed his own play The Miracle in 1924, and a popular stage version of Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream in 1927.
Reinhardt followed that success by directing a film version in 1935 using a mostly different cast, that included James Cagney, Mickey Rooney, Joe E. Brown and Olivia de Havilland, amongst others. Mickey Rooney and Ms. de Havilland had also appeared in Reinhardt's stage production. The Nazis banned the film because of the Jewish ancestry of both Reinhardt and Felix Mendelssohn, whose music (arranged by Erich Korngold) was used throughout the film.
Reinhardt also opened the Reinhardt School of the Theatre in Hollywood, on Sunset Boulevard. Several notable stars of the day received classical theater training, among them actress Nanette Fabray.
In 1940 he became a naturalized citizen of the United States. At that time, he was married to his second wife, the actress Helene Thimig.
He died in New York City
in 1943. Reinhardt is interred at Westchester Hills Cemetery
, Westchester County
, New York
His son, Gottfried Reinhardt, was a well-regarded film producer. His grandson, Stephen Reinhardt, is a labor lawyer who has been one of the most liberal judges on the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit since his appointment by Jimmy Carter in 1980.
Work on Broadway