The county covered the modern-day Zhuhai City and Zhongshan City in the Guangdong Province of the People's Republic of China (PRC), and the Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China.
Administratively part of the Baoan County and Dongguan County in history, a Xiangshan Township (香山鎮) was created in the 8th century (during the Tang Dynasty) within the Dongguan County, at the present-day Shanchang (山场) of Zhuhai. The township became a separate county in the 12th century (Northern Song Dynasty).
Macau became a Portuguese settlement in the 16th century during the Ming Dynasty, and later a colony. The colony was later expanded from a small settlement on the Macau Peninsula, to the entire peninsula, Ilha Verde, Taipa and Coloane.
In December 1952, Yumin County (漁民縣) was created out of islands from Siangshan County, Baoan County and Tungkwan County. This county was renamed Chuhai County (珠海縣) in April 1953, and was expanded. Chuhai County was briefly merged with Xiangshan County in March 1959, and was recreated in April 1961.
From 1961 onwards, territory of Chungshan County was reduced by 43%, with areas ceded to the counties of Toumen, Panyu, Shunde and Hsinhuei.
In 1979, Chuhai County (珠海县) became the Zhuhai City (珠海市). In December 1983, Zhongshan County (中山县) became Zhongshan City (中山市). Originally a county-level city, Zhongshan was elevated to prefecture level in January 1988.
A 6.81-square kilometre special economic zone was established within Zhuhai City in August 1980. The special economic zone was expanded to 15.16 square kilometres in June 1983, and 121 square kilometres in April 1989. In May 1983, Doumen County (斗門县) became administratively under Zhuhai City.
In December 1999, Macau was handed over by the Portugal to the People's Republic of China, as agreed in the Sino-Portuguese Joint Declaration in 1988. The Macau Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China was established.