Siam

Siam

[sahy-am, sahy-am]
Siam: see Thailand.
Siam, Gulf of: see Thailand, Gulf of.
formerly Gulf of Siam

Inlet of the South China Sea. Mostly bordering Thailand, though Cambodia and Vietnam form its southeastern shore, it is 300–350 mi (500–560 km) wide and 450 mi (725 km) long. Thailand's main harbours lie along its shores, its waters are important fishing grounds, and beaches along its coast are popular tourist attractions.

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officially Kingdom of Thailand formerly Siam

Country, mainland Southeast Asia. Area: 198,116 sq mi (513,119 sq km). Population (2005 est.): 64,186,000. Capital: Bangkok. The population is predominantly Thai, with significant Chinese, Khmer, and Malay minorities. Language: Thai (official). Religions: Buddhism (official); also Islam. Currency: Thai baht. The country encompasses forested hills and mountains, a central plain containing the Chao Phraya River delta, and a plateau in the northeast. Its market economy is based largely on services (notably trade) and light industries; agriculture employs a large proportion of the workforce. Thailand is a major producer of tungsten and tin. Among its chief agricultural products are rice, corn, rubber, soybeans, and pineapples; manufactures include clothing, canned goods, electronic equipment, and cement. Tourism is also important. Thailand is a constitutional monarchy with two legislative houses; its chief of state is the king, and the head of government is the prime minister. The region of Thailand has been continuously occupied for 20,000 years. It was part of the Mon and Khmer kingdoms from the 9th century AD. Thai-speaking peoples immigrated from China circa the 10th century. During the 13th century two Thai states emerged: the Sukhothai kingdom, founded circa 1220 after a successful revolt against the Khmer, and Chiang Mai (which evolved into the kingdom of Lan Na with Chiang Mai as its capital), founded in 1296 after defeating the Mon. In 1351 the Tai kingdom of Ayutthaya (Siam) succeeded the Sukhothai. Myanmar (Burma) was its most powerful rival, Burman armies occupying it briefly in the 16th century and destroying it in 1767. The Chakri dynasty came to power in 1782, moved the capital to Bangkok, and extended its empire along the Malay Peninsula and into Laos and Cambodia. The empire was formally named Siam in 1856. Although Western influence increased during the 19th century, Siam's rulers avoided colonization by granting concessions to European countries; it was the only Southeast Asian country able to do so. In 1917 Siam entered World War I on the side of the Allies. Following a military coup in 1932, it became a constitutional monarchy and was officially renamed Thailand in 1939. It was occupied by Japan in World War II. It participated in the Korean War as a member of the UN forces and was allied with South Vietnam in the Vietnam War. The country subsequently became a regional economic powerhouse, though serious social problems also emerged, including a growing gap between rich and poor and a major AIDS epidemic.

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formerly Gulf of Siam

Inlet of the South China Sea. Mostly bordering Thailand, though Cambodia and Vietnam form its southeastern shore, it is 300–350 mi (500–560 km) wide and 450 mi (725 km) long. Thailand's main harbours lie along its shores, its waters are important fishing grounds, and beaches along its coast are popular tourist attractions.

Learn more about Thailand, Gulf of with a free trial on Britannica.com.

This article is about the Pólya Prize awarded by the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. For the prize awarded by the London Mathematical Society, see Pólya Prize (LMS).

The Pólya Prize is a prize in mathematics, awarded by the Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics. First given in 1969, the prize is named after Hungarian mathematician George Pólya. It is now awarded in evenly numbered years.

The George Pólya Prize is given every two years, alternately in two categories: (1) for a notable application of combinatorial theory; (2) for a notable contribution in another area of interest to George Pólya such as approximation theory, complex analysis, number theory, orthogonal polynomials, probability theory, or mathematical discovery and learning.

The prize is broadly intended to recognize specific recent work. Prize committees may occasionally consider an award for cumulative work, but such awards should be rare.

Winners

External links

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