Shell Centre, in London, United Kingdom is one of the two "central offices" of oil major Shell (the other is in The Hague). It comprises a skyscraper tower and three nine-storey wings (the "upstream building"). It also once included a separate building known as the "downstream building" but that building was disposed of by Shell in the 1990s and is now a block of residential apartments known as the White House. Shell Centre is located on the Belvedere Road in the London Borough of Lambeth. It is a prominent feature on the South Bank of the River Thames near County Hall, and now forms the backdrop to the London Eye. Shell Centre was constructed in 1961, to a design by Sir Howard Robertson, and the tower stands at with 27 storeys (26 numbered and a mezzanine level) and extends three storeys below ground. The tower was the first London skyscraper to exceed the height of the Victoria Tower of the Palace of Westminster.
During construction, parts of abandoned works for the Waterloo and Whitehall Railway were discovered. This was a prototype for a proposed pneumatic railway that would have run under the River Thames linking Waterloo and Charing Cross. Digging was started in 1865 but was stopped in 1868 due to financial problems. Involved in the proposal was Thomas Webster Rammell, who was also responsible for the Crystal Palace Pneumatic Railway and the Pneumatic Dispatch Company.
Of special interest to those who care to look into the Thames at low tide just in line with the tower block or ride in the London Eye, you may notice water turbulence at one point a few feet into the river bed. This is the outflow point of Shell Centre's air-conditioning system, which sucks in river water from just outside County Hall and sends it via a pipe within a bolt iron tunnel (built exactly like a tube railway tunnel), to a point convergent with the outfall, then both the intake pipe and the outflow pipes continue under the embankment and Jubilee Gardens to the basement of the tower. From here the water is sent through filters and then heat exchanges to provide cooled air in the building. The pipes had to be especially supported on adjustable jacks during excavation work for the extension of the Jubilee Line in 1995 because of settlement during the driving of an access tunnel out from Jubilee Gardens to the main running lines in York Road via Chicheley Street.
The choice of Portland Stone cladding, and bronze framed individual upright windows were denounced by Modern Movement critics, and the Centre's buildings have generally been regarded as dull. However, the extremely traditional cladding has meant that the buildings have weathered better than most of their contemporaries with concrete or aggregate-faced façades or curtain-wall glazing.
The original interiors were luxuriously appointed, and as well as contributions from a British design team (many of whom had worked on the Festival of Britain), they included work by Ernesto Nathan Rogers who had worked on the Torre Velasca in Milan. Facilities for staff were lavish by the standards of the time, and the basement of the building was designed with a full size swimming pool and a spacious gymnasium. The basement also originally housed a rifle range, snooker room, a small supermarket for staff and a host of other facilities. Until 1998 there was also a fully equipped theatre which – unusually for a space dedicated to amateur productions – had full fly tower facilities. The courtyard of the Upstream Building includes two notable sculptures: "Torsion Fountain" (also known as The Shell Fountain) by Franta Belsky is a tall bronze column of shell-like forms, which once poured water into one another; and "Motorcyclist" by Siegfried Charoux — a larger than life figure of a rider astride his machine.
The public realm of the Upstream Building has been steadily degraded over the years, with the generous space between the columns of the entrance from York Road enclosed to enlarge the foyers. Textured paving in contrasting colours was installed to assist partially sighted pedestrians navigate the complex steps and ramps of the site, but also served to deter rough sleepers and skateboarders.
In 2004, a planning application was approved to convert the lower floors of the Upstream Building courtyard and the former staff cafeteria into a shopping centre, and to construct a contrasting new glazed office building on the Podium site to the south, which is currently a paved open space. The sculptures will be relocated.
Shell Centre has also been a place for unofficial "urban sports". The square in the middle of the complex was originally used by skateboarders, but anti-skating measures were put in place. However, freerunners continued to use it as a place to train. However, recently it has been blocked off for the building works.