(born Jan. 5, 1592, Lahore, India—died Jan. 22, 1666, Agra) Mughal emperor of India (1628–58). During the reign of his father, Jahāngīr, he was part of the clique that dominated Mughal-dynasty politics. After Jāhangīr's death, he garnered enough support to proclaim himself emperor. His reign was notable for its successes against the Deccan states. Though attempts to reconquer lost territory almost bankrupted the empire, his reign marked the zenith of Mughal court splendour. Of his great architectural undertakings (including a fortress-palace built when he transferred the capital from Agra to Delhi), the most famous is the Taj Mahal. Though a more orthodox Muslim than his father, he was less orthodox than his son and successor, Aurangzeb, and he was relatively tolerant of his Hindu subjects.
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