, also referred to as molestation
, is the forcing of undesired sexual acts by one person upon another. The offender is referred to as a molester
. When the victim is younger than the age of consent
, it is referred to as child sexual abuse
Types of sexual abuse include:
- Non-consensual, forced physical sexual behavior such as rape or sexual assault
- The use of a position of trust to compel non-consensual sexual behavior without physical force
- Incest, when it is coerced by force or emotional manipulation; the euphemism "bad touch" is sometimes used to describe such abuse.
is the term applied to the specific form of domestic violence
, where physical
or sexual abuse is perpetrated by one spouse upon another. Frequently this involves forced sex (spousal rape) upon a spouse without his or her consent. Spousal abuse is inclusive of sexual abuse toward spouses (spousal sexual abuse
Sexual misconduct in occupational and educational settings can occur where one person makes use of their position of authority in order to compel compliance. A university student may feel compelled to comply with a professor's sexual advances for fear of being given a failing grade. Or an employee may likewise be coerced in exchange for not being terminated.
Sexual abuse of children/minors
Child sexual abuse refers to sexual abuse of a child (see also: minor) by an adult, or some other person significantly older or in a position of power or control over the child, where the child is used for sexual stimulation of another person. Studies of the effects of child sexual abuse often define it as including invitations or requests in addition to actual actions, with regard to any sexual interactions between adult and child, from kissing or hugging to completed intercourse, and all other related activities.
The American Psychiatric Association states that "children cannot consent to sexual activity with adults", and condemns the action of the adult in strong terms: "An adult who engages in sexual activity with a child is performing a criminal and immoral act which never can be considered normal or socially acceptable behavior."
Sexual misconduct by teachers is common in American schools according to a recent report in 2007.
- Bass, Ellen and Laura Davis, 1988 (3rd ed. 1994). The Courage to Heal: A Guide for Women Survivors of Child Sexual Abuse. Harper Collins Publishers.
- Aba, C. (1992). Sexual Assaults on Students. London: Harper and Row.
- Billie Wright Dzeich and Linda Weiner, 1984 (2nd ed. 1990). The Lecherous Professor: Sexual Harassment on Campus. Boston: Beacon Press.
- Cotheffe, James Gay Men and Childhood Sexual Trauma: Integrating the Shattered Self.
- Doris Van Stone, (1990). No Place to Cry: The Hurt and Healing of Sexual Abuse. Moody Publishers.
- Haines, Staci The Survivors Guide to Sex: How to Have an Empowered Sex Life after Child Sexual Abuse.
- Haines, Staci Healing Sex (DVD) A diverse cast of men and women explore peace, healing and intimacy post-abuse.
- Lew, Mike. Victime No Longer: Men Recovering from Incest and Other Sexual Child Abuse.
- Wishart, G.D. (2003) The Sexual Abuse of People with Learning Difficulties: Do We Need A Social Model Approach To Vulnerability?, Journal of Adult Protection, Volume 5 (Issue 3)