Self-defeating personality disorder
(also known as masochistic personality disorder
) is a personality disorder
that was never formally admitted into the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
). It was discussed in an appendix of the manual's revised third edition (DSM-III-R). Nevertheless, some researchers and theorists continue to use its criteria.
DSM research criteria
Self-defeating personality disorder is a pervasive pattern of self-defeating behavior, beginning by early adulthood and present in a variety of contexts. The person may often avoid or undermine pleasurable experiences, be drawn to situations or relationships in which he or she will suffer, and prevent others from helping him, as indicated by at least five of the following:
- Chooses people and situations that lead to disappointment, failure, or mistreatment even when better options are clearly available
- Rejects or renders ineffective the attempts of others to help him
- Following positive personal events (e.g., new achievement), responds with depression, guilt, or a behavior that produces pain (e.g., an accident)
- Incites angry or rejecting responses from others and then feels hurt, defeated, or humiliated (e.g., makes fun of spouse in public, provoking an angry retort, then feels devastated)
- Rejects opportunities for pleasure, or is reluctant to acknowledge enjoying himself or herself (despite having adequate social skills and the capacity for pleasure)
- Fails to accomplish tasks crucial to his or her personal objectives despite demonstrated ability to do so, e.g., helps fellow students write papers, but is unable to write his or her own
- Is uninterested in or rejects people who consistently treat him well, e.g., is unattracted to caring sexual partners
- Engages in excessive self-sacrifice that is unsolicited by the intended recipients of the sacrifice
The behaviors do not occur exclusively in response to, or in anticipation of, being physically, sexually, or psychologically abused. Also, the behaviors do not occur only when the person is depressed.