, in its broadest sense, can mean the entire spectrum of rabbinic
writings throughout Jewish
history. But the term often refers specifically to literature from the Talmudic era
, as opposed to medieval
and modern rabbinic writing, and thus corresponds with the Hebrew
term Sifrut Hazal
(ספרות חז"ל; "Literature [of our] sages [of] blessed memory," where Hazal
normally refers only
to the sages of the Talmudic era). This more specific sense of "Rabbinic literature"—referring to the Talmudim
, and related writings, but hardly ever to later texts—is how the term is generally intended when used in contemporary academic writing. On the other hand, the terms meforshim
(commentaries/commentators) almost always refer to later, post-Talmudic writers of Rabbinic glosses
and Talmudic texts.
This article discusses rabbinic literature in both senses. It begins with the classic rabbinic literature of the Talmudic era (Sifrut Hazal), and then adds a broad survey of rabbinic writing from later periods.
and the Tosefta
(compiled from materials pre-dating the year 200
) are the earliest extant works of rabbinic literature, expounding and developing Judaism's Oral Law
, as well as ethical teachings. Following these came the two Talmuds
The Kabbalah should not be at all confused with the "mystic wiccan" or "mystic witch's qabalah" as created by such authors as Christopher Penczak, in his book, "The High Temple of Witchcraft: Ceremonies, Spheres, and the Witch's Qabalah." This is a strictly pagan form, devoid of meaning for the Kabbalistic thinker.
) is a Hebrew word referring to a method of reading details into, or out of, a Biblical
text. The term midrash
also can refer to a compilation of Midrashic teachings, in the form of legal, exegetical, homiletical, or narrative writing, often configured as a commentary on the Bible
. There are a large number of "classical" Midrashic works spanning a period from Mishnaic
times, often showing evidence of having been worked and reworked from earlier materials, and frequently coming to us in multiple variants. A compact list of these works [based on ] is given below; a more thorough annotated list can be found under Midrash
. The timeline below must be approximate because many of these works were composed over a long span of time, borrowing and collating material from earlier versions; their histories are therefore somewhat uncertain and the subject of scholarly debate. In the table, "n.e." designates that the work in question is not extant except in secondary references.
Later works by category
Major codes of Jewish law
Jewish thought and ethics
The works of Hasidic JudaismJewish ethics and the Mussar Movement
Later works by historical period
Works of the Geonim
are the rabbis of Sura and Pumbeditha, in Babylon
Works of the Rishonim (the "early" rabbinical commentators)
are the rabbis of the early medieval period (1000
- The commentaries on the Torah, such as those by Rashi, Abraham ibn Ezra and Nahmanides.
- Commentaries on the Talmud, principally by Rashi, his grandson Samuel ben Meir and Nissim of Gerona.
- Talmudic novellae (chiddushim) by Tosafists, Nahmanides, Nissim of Geronda, Solomon ben Aderet (RaShBA), Yomtov ben Ashbili (Ritva)
- Works of halakha (Asher ben Yechiel, Mordechai ben Hillel)
- Codices by Maimonides and Jacob ben Asher, and finally Shulkhan Arukh
- Responsa, e.g. by Solomon ben Aderet (RaShBA)
- Kabbalistic works (such as the Zohar)
- Philosophical works (Maimonides, Gersonides, Nahmanides)
- Ethical works (Bahya ibn Paquda, Jonah of Gerona)
Works of the Acharonim (the "later" rabbinical commentators)
are the rabbis from 1550
to the present day.
- Important Torah commentaries include Keli Yakar (Shlomo Ephraim Luntschitz), Ohr ha-Chayim by Chayim ben-Attar, the commentary of Samson Raphael Hirsch, and the commentary of Naftali Zvi Yehuda Berlin.
- Important works of Talmudic novellae include: Pnei Yehoshua, Hafla'ah, Sha'agath Aryei
- Responsa, e.g. by Moses Sofer, Moshe Feinstein
- Works of halakha and codices e.g. Mishnah Berurah by Yisrael Meir Kagan and the Aruch ha-Shulchan by Yechiel Michel Epstein
- Ethical and philosophical works: Moshe Chaim Luzzatto, Yisrael Meir Kagan and the Mussar Movement
- Hasidic works (Kedushath Levi, Sefath Emmeth, Shem mi-Shemuel)
- Philosophical/metaphysical works (the works of the Maharal of Prague, Moshe Chaim Luzzatto and Nefesh ha-Chayim by Chaim of Volozhin)
- Mystical works
- Historical works, e.g. Shem ha-Gedolim by Chaim Joseph David Azulai.
is a Hebrew
word meaning "(classical rabbinical) commentators" (or roughly meaning "exegetes
"), and is used as a substitute for the correct word perushim
which means "commentaries". In Judaism
this term refers to commentaries by the commentators on the Torah
(five books of Moses), Tanakh
, the Mishnah
, the Talmud
, even the siddur
(Jewish prayerbook), and more.
Classic Torah and Talmud commentaries
commentaries have been written by the following individuals:
- Rashi (Shlomo Yitzchaki), 12th century France
- Abraham ibn Ezra
- Nahmanides (Moshe ben Nahman)
- Samuel ben Meir, the Rashbam, 12th century France
- Rabbi Levi ben Gershom (known as Ralbag or Gersonides)
- David ben Joseph Kimhi, the Radak, 13th century France
- Joseph ben Isaac, the Bekhor Shor, 12th century France
- Nissim ben Reuben Gerondi, the RaN, 14th century Spain
- Isaac ben Judah Abravanel (1437-1508)
- Obadiah ben Jacob Sforno, 16th century Italy
- The Vilna Gaon, Rabbi Eliyahu of Vilna, 18th century Lithuania
- The Malbim, Meir Lob ben Jehiel Michael
Classical Talmudic commentaries were written by Rashi. After Rashi the Tosafot were written, which was an omnibus commentary on the Talmud by the disciples and descendants of Rashi; this commentary was based on discussions done in the rabbinic academies of Germany and France.
Modern Torah commentaries
Modern Torah commentaries which have received wide acclaim in the Jewish community include:
- Conservative Judaism:
- Reform Judaism
- "A Torah Commentary for Our Times," a three-volume commentary edited by Rabbi Harvey Fields
- "Sparks Beneath the Surface" by Rabbis Lawrence S. Kushner and Kerry M. Olitzky, spiritual commentary based on Hasidic teachings
- "The Torah: A Women's Commentary" edited by Dr. Tamara Cohn Eskenazi and Rabbi Andrea Weiss, featuring new critical approaches such as literary criticism, sociology, and feminism not found in traditional commentaries.
Modern Siddur commentaries
Modern Siddur commentaries have been written by:
- Rabbi Yisrael Meir Kagan HaCohen, The Chofetz Chaim's Siddur
- Samson Raphael Hirsch, The Hirsch Siddur, Feldheim
- Abraham Isaac Kook, Olat Reyia
- The Authorised Daily Prayer Book with commentary by Joseph H. Hertz
- Elie Munk, The World of Prayer, Elie Munk
- Nosson Scherman, The Artscroll Siddur, Mesorah Publications
- Reuven Hammer, Or Hadash, United Synagogue of Conservative Judaism
- My Peoples Prayer Book, Jewish Lights Publishing, written by a team of non-Orthodox rabbis and Talmud scholars.
- Back to the Sources: Reading the Classic Jewish Texts, Barry W. Holtz, (Summit Books)
- Introduction to Rabbinic Literature Jacob Neusner, (Anchor Bible Reference Library/Doubleday)
- Introduction to the Talmud and Midrash, H. L. Strack and G. Stemberger, (Fortress Press)
- The Literature of the Sages: Oral Torah, Halakha, Mishnah, Tosefta, Talmud, External Tractates, Shemuel Safrai and Peter J. (Tomsan Fortress, 1987)
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