Sežana (Sesana) is a town and a municipality in the Karst region of western Slovenia, near the border with Italy. According to the census of 2002, it has a population of 11,842, of which around 4,500 live in the town of Sežana and the rest in the neighbouring rural areas.
Sežana is located about 10 km from Trieste, Italy, and 80 km from Ljubljana, the capital of Slovenia. In the past, a large border crossing between Slovenia and Italy was located in the village of Fernetiči, but it has been opened since December 21st 2007, when Slovenia joined the Schengen zone, ending the need for passport and customs checks between the two countries.
Sežana remained a small and rather unsignificant village until mid 19th century, when the Austrian Southern Railway, connecting Vienna to Trieste, was built next to it. Sežana thus became connected to the major traffics and soon emerged as the most important center on the Kras Plateau, together with Opčine. After 1918, it was annexed to the Kingdom of Italy and included in the Province of Trieste. During the Fascist period, the population was subjected to a violent Italianization policy, and many locals joined the militant anti-fascist organization TIGR. During World War Two, especially after 1943, the area was became a battlefield bewteen the Partisan resistance and the Fascist and Nazi German forces. In May 1945, Sežana was liberated by the Yugoslav partisans. Between June 1945 and September 1947, it was administered by the British and U.S. Army. In 1947, it became part of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and in 1991 of independent Slovenia.
Many impornant industrial enterprises are located in Sežana, including companies as Mitol, Jadran, Goldclub, Alfastreet, and Kraški zidar, as well as many smaller enterprises. Sežana is also a center for the tourist industry. Its excellent location between Ljubljana, Trieste, and the Adriatic coast and many important tourist sights in the vicinity, such as the world famous Lipica studfarm, Postojna Cave, Škocjan Caves, Vilenica and the fortified village of Štanjel, make Sežana an attractive tourist destination.
Sežana is also an important agricultural center.