Sometimes the name for this reaction is also used to indicate the reaction between an acid chloride and a alcohol to form an ester. The reaction was first described in 1883 by German chemists Carl Schotten and Eugen Baumann .
In the first step an acid chloride reacts with an amine so that an amide is formed, together with a proton and a chloride ion. Addition of a base is required to absorb this acidic proton, or the reaction will not proceed. Often, an aqueous solution of a base is slowly added to the reaction mixture.
The name "Schotten-Baumann reaction conditions" is often used to indicate the use of a two-phase solvent system, consisting of water and an organic solvent. The base within the water phase neutralizes the acid, generated in the reaction, while the starting materials and product remain in the organic phase, often dichloromethane or diethyl ether.
The Schotten-Baumann reaction or reaction conditions are widely used today in organic chemistry. Examples include:
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