[shles-in-jer, shley-zing-er]
Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, 1888-1965, American historian, b. Xenia, Ohio. After teaching at Ohio State Univ. and the State Univ. of Iowa, he was a professor of history (1924-54) at Harvard and in 1928 became an editor of the New England Quarterly. His well-known works in the field of colonial history include The Colonial Merchants and the American Revolution, 1763-1776 (1918) and Prelude to Independence: The Newspaper War on Britain, 1764-1776 (1958). He is also known for his interest in the interpretation of social history, as in The Rise of the City, 1878-1898 (1933) and Political and Social Growth of the American People, 1865-1940 (1941). His other books include New Viewpoints in American History (1922), essays on American historiography. With Dixon Ryan Fox he edited the "History of American Life" series (13 vol., 1927-48), which remains a valuable examination of U.S. social and cultural life.
Schlesinger, Arthur Meier, Jr., 1917-2007, American historian and public official, b. Columbus, Ohio, as Arthur Bancroft Schlesinger; son of Arthur Meier Schlesinger. He achieved early success as a historian with the publication, the year after his graduation, of his Harvard honors thesis, Orestes A. Brownson: A Pilgrim's Progress (1939). In World War II he served with the Office of War Information (1942-43) and the Office of Strategic Services (1943-45), and he was professor of history at Harvard from 1946 to 1961. His Age of Jackson (1945), a brilliant reinterpretation of the social, political, and economic aspects of the era, stimulated numerous American historians to reexamine Jacksonian America and won the Pulitzer Prize. The Age of Roosevelt (3 vol., 1957-60) is a sweeping narrative and analysis of the New Deal period in U.S. history, written from a strongly sympathetic viewpoint. Active in liberal politics, Schlesinger was a cofounder of the Americans for Democratic Action (1947). He served as an assistant to Democratic presidential candidate John F. Kennedy, and in 1961 President Kennedy appointed him special assistant for Latin American affairs. His study of Kennedy's White House years, A Thousand Days (1965), won the Pulitzer Prize for biography. He began teaching at the City Univ. of New York Graduate Center in 1966 and became an emeritus professor in 1994. His other works include The Vital Center: The Politics of Freedom (1949). The Politics of Hope (1963), The Bitter Heritage (1968), The Imperial Presidency (1973), Robert F. Kennedy and His Times (1978), The Cycles of American History (1986), and War and the American Presidency (2004).

See his autobiography, A Life in the 20th Century, Innocent Beginnings, 1917-1950 (2000) and his Journals: 1952-2000 (2007).

Schlesinger, James Rodney, 1929-, U.S. Secretary of Defense (1973-75) and Secretary of Energy (1977-79), b. New York City. After graduating from Harvard (A.B., 1950; A.M., 1952; Ph.D., 1956), he taught economics (1955-63) at the Univ. of Virginia and was then (1963-69) a specialist in strategic studies for the RAND Corp. In 1969 he was appointed assistant director of the Bureau of the Budget by President Richard Nixon, under whom he later assumed the offices of chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (1971), director of the Central Intelligence Agency (Feb., 1973), and Secretary of Defense (July, 1973). Under President Jimmy Carter, he was the first Secretary of Energy.
Schlesinger is a German surname meaning "from Silesia" (German: Schlesien) and may refer to:

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