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Scarlatti

Scarlatti

[skahr-lah-tee; It. skahr-laht-tee]
Scarlatti, Alessandro, 1660-1725, Italian composer. He may have studied with Carissimi in Rome, where his first opera was produced in 1679. In 1684 he went to Naples as master of the royal chapel and there composed operas for the royal palace and chamber music for the aristocracy. Later he was also active in Florence, Rome, and Venice. He wrote more than 100 operas, of which Mitridate Eupatore (1707) and Il Tigrane (1715) are considered the finest. As a leader of the Neapolitan school, he helped establish the conventions of the opera seria, perfecting the aria da capo and the three-part overture. His church music includes motets and masses; he also wrote serenades and madrigals, and he composed almost 700 chamber cantatas, which represent the highest development of his art.

His son, (Giuseppe) Domenico Scarlatti, 1685-1757, was a harpsichord virtuoso and composer. As a young man he is said to have engaged in friendly keyboard competition with his contemporary Handel, and thereafter the two had lifelong admiration for each other. From 1709 to 1714, Scarlatti was composer to the Polish Queen Maria Casimira in her court at Rome, and then for a time he was chapel master of St. Peter's. About 1719 he went to Lisbon as music master of the royal chapel and teacher of the Princess Maria Barbara. He accompanied her to Madrid in 1729, and spent the rest of his life at the Spanish court. Scarlatti wrote operas, oratorios, and cantatas, but his fame rests chiefly on his keyboard sonatas, of which he wrote well over 500. They exploit the instrument to its fullest capacity, exemplifying his mastery of the homophonic "free style" of composition. His works display the vivacity, grace, and ornamentation of the rococo, and at the same time show boundless invention and originality. Scarlatti is widely considered to be the founder of modern keyboard technique.

See biography of Alessandro by E. J. Dent (1905, new ed. 1960); biography of Domenico by R. Kirkpatrick (1953, rev. ed. 1968); S. Sitwell, A Background for Domenico Scarlatti (1935, repr. 1970).

(born May 2, 1660, Palermo, Sicily, Kingdom of the Two Sicilies—died Oct. 22, 1725, Naples) Italian composer. He may have studied with Giacomo Carissimi in Rome. His first known opera (1679) was a success, and by 1680 he was chapel master in Rome for Queen Christina of Sweden. He left this secure position to become chapel master of the viceroy of Naples (1684–1702). Most of the operas produced in the city during this period were his own, and they were increasingly heard in other cities as well, including Leipzig and London. Most of his instrumental music comes from his late period, as do his comic operas. He wrote at least 70 and perhaps more than 100 operas, as well as some 600 secular cantatas; his opera overtures (sinfonie) were important forerunners of the symphony. Domenico Scarlatti was his son.

Learn more about Scarlatti, (Pietro) Alessandro (Gaspare) with a free trial on Britannica.com.

Scarlatti was the name of four Italian baroque composers:

  • Alessandro Scarlatti (1660–1725), Italian Baroque composer known for operas and chamber cantatas
  • Francesco Scarlatti (1666–1741), Italian Baroque composer and musician, brother of Alessandro Scarlatti
  • Pietro Filippo Scarlatti (1679–1750), Italian composer, organist and choirmaster, son of Alessandro Scarlatti
  • Domenico Scarlatti (1685–1757), Italian composer, influential in the development of keyboard music, son of Alessandro Scarlatti

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