Satyasraya continued the aggressive policies of his father Tailapa II. He quickly identified the growing Chola power as his nemesis and resented their increasing influence in the Vengi region and with the Eastern Chalukyas. He sent an army led by one of his generals Baya Nambi to invade the Eastern Chalukyan kingdom in 1006 C.E. to overthrow the Chola-Chalukya alliance and bring the east coast under his control. The general entered Vengi from the south, reduced the forts of Dharanikota and Yanamadala to ashes and established himself at Chebrolu (Guntur district). Rajaraja Chola distracted the attention of Satyasraya by sending his son Rajendra Chola I to invade Rattapadi in the west and thus compelled him to withdraw his army from Vengi for the defence of his realm.
During his reign the Paramaras and Chedi reconquered the territory that they had lost to the Chalukyas earlier. But Satyashraya was able to defeat Raja Raja Chola and the crown prince Rajendra Chola when they invaded parts of Karnataka. He also subdued the Shilahara king Aparijitha ruler of North Konkana.
Seeing increased interference of Cholas in Vengi, Satyasraya invaded Vengi in 1006.
The Cholas responded with a two-pronged attack on the Vengi kingdom and on the Western Chalukya territory itself. The Chola armies were led by Rajendra Chola I. Rajendra marched up to Donur near Kudalasangama and Unakal near Hubli and plundered the entire county, slaughtering women, men and children and threatening the Chalukya capital Manyakheta. Satyasrya was thus compelled to withdraw from Vengi and retreat to his kingdom in the western Deccan.
After many bloody battles, Satyasrya managed to push back the Chola advance to the banks of the river Tungabhadra.
An inscription of Rajaraja from 1003. asserts that he captured by force Rattapadi. Rajendra led the Chola armies against the Western Chalukyas. According to the Hottur inscriptions of Satyasraya, dated 1007 – 1008, the Chola king with a force numbering nine hundred thousand had ‘pillaged the whole country. Rajaraja’s inscriptions indicate that the Chola army elephants wrought havoc on the banks of the river Tungabhadra. Rajaraja however could not capture the Western Chalukya capital Manyakheta. Though overwhelmed by the strength and rapidity of the Chola advance Satyasraya soon recovered and by hard fighting rolled back the invasion. He further invaded the Gujarat Lata region and asserted his influence there.
Satyasraya was succeeded by his son Vikramaditya V in 1008.