is an artificial script
which was created by J. R. R. Tolkien
. In his mythology, the sarati alphabet was invented by Rúmil
. When Fëanor
created the later tengwar
script, more ubiquitous both in Middle-earth
and in real life, he modeled it after sarati. Unlike tengwar and Tolkien's other Elvish alphabet, the cirth
, sarati is written in several different directions, though the most prominent is from top to bottom. Others are left to right, right to left, and boustrophedon
As in the later tengwar, each full character represents a consonant, while vowels are represented with diacritics (called tehtar in the terminology associated with the tengwar). In sarati, vowel signs are written to the left (or sometimes right) of the consonants in vertical writing, above (and sometimes below) in horizontal writing. According to Tolkien, consonants were considered more salient than vowels, and vowels were considered merely modifiers. When writing Quenya, the sign for "a" is usually omitted, as it is the most common vowel in Quenya. This makes sarati an abugida with an inherent vowel of "a".
- Martínez, Helios De Rosario. "Rúmilian Numerals." Tengwestië (2007).
- Smith, Arden R. "The Alphabet of Rúmil." Parma Eldalamberon 13 (2001).
- Smith, Arden R. "The Túrin Prose Fragment: An Analysis of a Rúmilian Document." Vinyar Tengwar 37 (1995): 15-23.
- Smith, Arden R., Irmengard Rauch and Gerald F. Carr. "The Semiotics of the Writing Systems of Tolkien's Middle-Earth." In Semiotics around the World: Synthesis in Diversity, I-II, ed. Irmengard Rauch, 1239-42. Berlin, Germany: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997.