Francisco de Paula Rodrigues Alves,PC (July 7, 1848 - January 16, 1919) was a Brazilian politician who first served as President of São Paulo Province in 1887, and as Treasury minister in the 1890s. Rodrigues Alves was elected president of Brazil in 1902 and served until 1906.
During this term he remodeled the then Brazilian capital, Rio de Janeiro, an effort punctuated by the 1904 "Vaccine Revolt". He was elected president for a second term in 1918, but died before assuming power, on January 16 1919, a victim of the Spanish flu. He was succeeded by his vice-president, Delfim Moreira.
Rodrigues Alves was born in the city of Guaratinguetá, São Paulo. He graduated as a lawyer from the Faculdade de Direito do Largo de São Francisco, São Paulo in 1870. His public career started as councilman in his native city, from 1866 to 1870. He became prosecutor in 1870. In 1872 he became a state member of the house of representatives until 1879. Also during Brazil's Empire, he took office as President of the province of São Paulo, from 1887 til 1888. After the proclamation of the Republic, he was a member of the Constitutional Assembly, and also a member of the house of representatives (1891/1893). He occupied the position of Treasury Secretary twice, from 1891 to 1892, and from 1894 to 1896.
He was elected to rule as Brazil's 5th president from 1902 to 1906. He distinguished himself as a great city planner and public financier of the State. He applied his experience in the reurbanization of the capital of the Republic, Rio de Janeiro.
He ran again for the presidency in 1919 and won the election, but died before assuming office.